Rail Human Factors : Supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction book cover
1st Edition

Rail Human Factors
Supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction

ISBN 9781138000377
Published February 19, 2013 by CRC Press
762 Pages

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Book Description

The rail human factors/ergonomics community has grown quickly and extensively, and there is much increased recognition of the vital importance of ergonomics/human factors by rail infrastructure owners, rail operating companies, system developers, regulators and national and trans-national government. This book, the fourth on rail human factors, is drawn from papers presented at the London 4th International Conference on Rail Human Factors. The contributions cover the range of human and organisational issues on the railway, from driving to signalling and control to maintenance and engineering work, to passengers and security issues such as trespass, and address improvements in safety, reliability, use of capacity, efficiency and quality.

The book represents the best of recent work in rail human factors, and starts to define the framework for the next few years. As well as the human factors areas listed above, the conference and thus the book are notable for sessions on simulation in rail human factors and on human factors in metro design and operation. The book also reflects the increased attention being paid to, and developments in, understanding all aspects of rail stakeholders’ behaviour, and also the contribution of ergonomics/human factors to innovative network control systems which will enhance reliability, safety and use of capacity.

The book will be of interest to a number of groups: those working in the rail sector from a human factors point of view; the larger rail industry and related bodies generally; and in terms of transferrable knowledge to ergonomists and human factors specialists working in other industries.

Table of Contents

Passengers and station

Using technology to improve the efficient use of rail stations
E. Thompson, T. Kazi, K. Wright, M.Woods & R. Blakemore

Guidelines for the design and evaluation of railway warning signs for young children
A. Monk & P.Waterson

Station wayfinding – practical experience and the way forward
D.Watts, A. Parkes, N. Hayden-Smith & M. Stearn

Level crossing & bridges

What does it all mean? Road user comprehension of signs and signals at public road level crossings
D. Basacik, S. Cynk, T. Flint & J. McMorrow

Decision-making at level crossings – should a decision point marker be provided?
C. Turner, A. McKenzie Kerr, A. Mills, J. McMorrow & E. Lowe

Checking for trains: An on-road study of what drivers actually do at level crossings
M.G. Lenné, V. Beanland, P.M. Salmon, A. Filtness & N.A. Stanton

Can you tame a level crossing? Results from a driving simulator based paradigm
M.H. Cale, A. Gellert, N. Katz & W. Sommer

An innovative information gathering and data analysis platform for railway level crossing safety data
C.Wullems, Y. Toft & G. Dell

Reducing the number and impact of railway underline bridge strikes
M.J. Stout & D. Basacik


Developing methodology in restrail for the preliminary evaluation of preventative measures for railway suicide and trespass
B. Ryan &V.-P. Kallberg

Musculoskeletal Disorder and cab design

Musculoskeletal Disorder risk assessment tool for train drivers
A. Scott & M. Stout

A driver-centred driver’s safety device
D. Hitchcock, C. Morris & A. Taylor

Static anthropometry measures of tram drivers in Bosnia & Herzegovina important for tram control panel design
D. Sumpor, Z. Toš & N. Musabašic

Driver advisory system and automation

Human factor challenges in the development of a Driver Advisory System for regional passenger trains
T. Albrecht

Automation effects in train driving with train protection systems – assessing person- and task-related factors
S. Giesemann

Designing train Driver Advisory Systems for situation awareness
S. Tschirner, A.W. Andersson & B. Sandblad

The state of the information environment of the crew’s cabin according to progress of systematisation
M. Kuratani


A comparative cognitive task analysis of the different forms of driving in the UK rail system
A. Buksh, S. Sharples, J.R.Wilson, A. Coplestone & G. Morrisroe

Bridging the gap between technology and adoption: A case study
E. Thompson, T. Kazi &A. Scott

A method for assessing drivability for ETCS cab retrofit
H. Blanchard

Investigating the effects of the ERTMS driver machine interface on train driver behaviour and railway safety
L. Kecklund, A. LindgrenWalter & E. Nordlöf


The implications of automation on human intervention at London Underground
J.Wackrow & A. Slamen

Human factors for the London Underground stations upgrade programme
N. Scard & G. Brown

The observatron: Collecting task time data using a bespoke software application
P. Salkeld

Meeting the challenges of Human Factors Integration in a multi-stage project to re-signal and re-control a metro
S. Heape

Fitting a Jubilee line shaped peg into a Northern line shaped hole
L. Kelly

Applying current alarm management guidance for a 21st century railway
J. Murphy, M. Lowten & K. Hope

Developing a tram driver route learning training simulator for Manchester’s Metrolink Trams
I. Rowe

Amsterdam Metro cab: Ergonomics in the design, verification and validation process
R. van derWeide, H.F.L. Frieling, F. Malle & D. Miglianico

Reflections on the progress and lessons learnt from implementing human factors in MTR Corporation operations division
K. Priestley & Z. Tse

Managing the risks associated with a basic yet critical maintenance operation in the Paris metro workshops
J.-P. Bert & F. Jubert

Safety assessment of CCTV for platform interface tasks – Sydney Suburban Trains
P. Traub & G. Fraser


Work patterns of freight drivers and recovery from shift work
K.A. Robertson, M.B. Spencer, A. McGuffog, S. Hesketh & A. Mills

On-call scheduling in rail maintenance – diary research challenges in an industrial context
N. Cebola, D. Golightly, J.R.Wilson & E. Lowe

Fatigue, anxiety, and performance for on-call safety critical decision makers in rail maintenance – a diary study
N. Cebola, D. Golightly, J.R.Wilson & E. Lowe

Rail staff fatigue – the GB regulator’s perspective on managing the risks
J. Mawhood & C. Dickinson

Can you know if someone is too tired to drive safely?
M. Cale, I. Haimov, Y. Shafran & O. Tzischinsky

Traffic management

‘He’s not from around here!’ The significance of local knowledge
L. Pickup, N. Balfe, E. Lowe & J.R.Wilson

A sociotechnical comparison of automated train traffic control between GB and Sweden
D. Golightly, B. Sandblad, N. Dadashi, A.W. Andersson, S. Tschirner & S. Sharples

Dispatching, planning, passenger support, multi-actor systems and organizational structures in The Netherlands Railways (NS)
N.R. Faber & R.J. Jorna

Analysis of collaboration applied to train drivers and train traffic controllers in Sweden
S. Tschirner, B. Sandblad, A.W. Andersson, P. Hellström & G. Isaksson-Lutteman

Requirements elicitation for disruption management support
N. Dadashi, D. Golightly & S. Sharples

Signaller information use in traffic regulation decisions
C. Patrick, N. Balfe, J.R.Wilson & R. Houghton

The future of signaller workload assessments in an automated world
N. Hayden-Smith

Using graphical support tools to encourage active planning at stations
R. Charles, N. Balfe, J.R.Wilson, S. Sharples & M. Carey

Track worker

Applying lean techniques to analyse railway possessions and isolations to identify opportunities for more effective procedures
W. Garner & S. Stiles

Perceptions of accident risk among on-track machine workers: An interview study
J.I. Morgan, R. Abbott, P. Furness & S.Webster-Spriggs

Designing mobile user experiences: Disruptive innovation in railway asset information
R. Bye

HF integration

Systems approaches in ergonomics/human factors applied within rail systems engineering

Humans as an asset in a system consideration on the contribution of humans to system performance and system safety
M.P. Zeilstra & R. van derWeide

Organisational and human aspects of safety at border crossings
V. Papillault & C. Neveu

Rules and standards

Evaluation of the new approach rule book
A. Mills, S. Evans, H. Gibson & A. Monk

‘We were doing this before human factors was invented’ – signals standards from a user-centred perspective
T. Flint & R. Barrow

Current practices of the assessment and acceptance of risks related to human interactions within the European railways
L. Kecklund, A.O. Mowitz & M. Antova


Non-technical skills for rail: Development, piloting, evaluation, and implementation of courses for front-line staff and managers
K. Bonsall-Clarke & S. Pugh

The introduction of non-technical skills into a train driver competence management system
A.J. Russell, S. Bailey &A.C. Moore

Achieving compliance through people: Training supervisors to tackle procedural non-compliance
P. Leach, R. Canham & J. Berman

Searching for safe drivers: Challenges in making decisions about test use in safety critical industries
S. Evans, C. Johnson & T. Flint

Human factors awareness training for incident investigators: What impact has it had three years later?
S. Evans

The development of a risk-based training needs analysis methodology and tool
P. Shah, A. Taylor & K. Bonsall-Clarke

A good practice guide on competence development
P. Shah, K. Bonsall-Clarke & A. Taylor

Raising awareness of risk perception: When, how, who
P. Calvo Holgado, C. García Suárez & B. Gil de Egea

Safety culture

Human error prevention effect of point and call check used by railway workers in Japan
M. Shigemori, A. Sato, T. Masuda & S. Haga

Our efforts in developing a safety culture – establishment of safety management system on the basis of risk assessment
Y. Mito

Study of effective praise in train driver’s workplace
T. Horishita, K. Yamaura & M. Kanayama

Study of train drivers’ work motivation and its relationship to organisational factors in a Japanese railway company
H. Fujino, T. Horishita, T. Sonoda & H. Yamaguchi

Mental workload and situation awareness

Prediction of mental workload of monitoring tasks
C.Weeda & M. Zeilstra

Subjective mental workload of Dutch train dispatchers: Validation of IWS in a practical setting
M.S.Wilms & M.P. Zeilstra

Incident investigation

Incident Factor Classification System
W.H. Gibson, S. Smith, E. Lowe, A.M. Mills, G. Morse & S. Carpenter

Developing an effective corrective action process: Lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system
J. Multer, J. Ranney, J. Hile &T. Raslear

Human reliability

Railway action reliability assessment, a railway-specific approach to human error quantification
W.H. Gibson, A.M. Mills, S. Smith & B.K. Kirwan

Human factors in railway vehicle axle inspection
M.J. Stout,W.H. Gibson, K. Timmis & S. Mills

The retrospective use of AcciMaps in the graphical representation of rail incidents
A. Farooqi, B. Ryan & J.R.Wilson

A new approach for the assessment of human reliability in German railway risk assessments
B. Milius

The influence of selecting a specific sample of hazardous events on the evaluation of the train driver’s reliability
T. Lindner

Modeling human-machine interaction for the assessment of human reliability
D. Schwencke, J. Grippenkoven & K. Lemmer

Humanscan®: A software solution towards the management of human reliability in the rail industry
B. Gil de Egea, P. Calvo Holgado & C. García Suárez

Resilience and emergency

Proposition of an organisational resilience assessment framework dedicated to railway traffic management
E. Rigaud, C. Neveu, S. Duvenci-Langa, M.-N. Obrist & S. Rigaud

A study of evacuation guidance in earthquake and tsunami disaster
T. Yamakawa

Safety and evacuations: A risk assessment of the potential use of bidirectional video communication in safe rooms
S.M. Brotnov, A.-M. Braaten & S. Zarghooni

Author index

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Nastaran Dadashi is a research fellow within Human Factors Research Group, University of Nottingham. Her PhD, Human Factors of future railway intelligent infrastructure, was funded by Network Rail and was focused on adapting a cognitive approach to design and understand complex multi-agent systems within socio-technical environments. Currently she is working on a EU commissioned project, ON-TIME, that aims to improve the punctuality of railway services across different European countries by optimising the disruption management process. She has been involved with various rail consultancy projects, funded by industry and research council sponsors.

Anita Scott is a Senior Human Factors Specialist and has worked at RSSB since 2006. Anita is the co-ordinator and manager for the Human Factors Research Assistant post which rotates on a yearly basis and is taken up by sandwich year students on psychology or ergonomics degree courses. She is currently working on a number of research and support projects for the rail industry on topics including: ERTMS, musculoskeletal disorders and implementation of new onboard systems and is a trainer for the Human Factors Awareness course for incident investigators.

John Wilson is Professor of Human Factors at the University of Nottingham. He is also employed 50% of his time as Principal Ergonomist (Knowledge and Strategy) by Network Rail. He has held previous positions at Loughborough and Birmingham Universities in the UK, at UC Berkeley, USA, and was Head of the School of Risk and Safety Science at UNSW, Sydney, Australia. He has authored over 500 publications with more than 300 in refereed books, journals or conferences and is a Scientific or Associate Editor and on the Editorial Boards of five journals in human factors/ergonomics, and virtual environments, and has been Editor-in-Chief of Applied Ergonomics since 1991.

Ann Mills leads the Human Factors Team at RSSB. Ann has an MSc and PhD in Applied Psychology from Cranfield University. She is a chartered psychologist and has been working in the field of transportation safety for the past 20 years. Prior to joining RSSB Ann worked as a senior researcher at Cranfield University for 6 years in the area of aviation safety working on projects funded by the Civil Aviation Authority, Joint Airworthiness Authority, Federal Aviation Administration & Shell. Ann also has experience working in communications research and the psychology of brand loyalty when she worked for National Opinion Poll (NOP).