1st Edition

Rail Human Factors Supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction

Edited By Nastaran Dadashi, Anita Scott, John R Wilson, Ann Mills Copyright 2013
    762 Pages
    by CRC Press

    762 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The rail human factors/ergonomics community has grown quickly and extensively, and there is much increased recognition of the vital importance of ergonomics/human factors by rail infrastructure owners, rail operating companies, system developers, regulators and national and trans-national government. This book, the fourth on rail human factors, is drawn from papers presented at the London 4th International Conference on Rail Human Factors. The contributions cover the range of human and organisational issues on the railway, from driving to signalling and control to maintenance and engineering work, to passengers and security issues such as trespass, and address improvements in safety, reliability, use of capacity, efficiency and quality.

    The book represents the best of recent work in rail human factors, and starts to define the framework for the next few years. As well as the human factors areas listed above, the conference and thus the book are notable for sessions on simulation in rail human factors and on human factors in metro design and operation. The book also reflects the increased attention being paid to, and developments in, understanding all aspects of rail stakeholders’ behaviour, and also the contribution of ergonomics/human factors to innovative network control systems which will enhance reliability, safety and use of capacity.

    The book will be of interest to a number of groups: those working in the rail sector from a human factors point of view; the larger rail industry and related bodies generally; and in terms of transferrable knowledge to ergonomists and human factors specialists working in other industries.

    Passengers and station

    Using technology to improve the efficient use of rail stations
    E. Thompson, T. Kazi, K. Wright, M.Woods & R. Blakemore

    Guidelines for the design and evaluation of railway warning signs for young children
    A. Monk & P.Waterson

    Station wayfinding – practical experience and the way forward
    D.Watts, A. Parkes, N. Hayden-Smith & M. Stearn

    Level crossing & bridges

    What does it all mean? Road user comprehension of signs and signals at public road level crossings
    D. Basacik, S. Cynk, T. Flint & J. McMorrow

    Decision-making at level crossings – should a decision point marker be provided?
    C. Turner, A. McKenzie Kerr, A. Mills, J. McMorrow & E. Lowe

    Checking for trains: An on-road study of what drivers actually do at level crossings
    M.G. Lenné, V. Beanland, P.M. Salmon, A. Filtness & N.A. Stanton

    Can you tame a level crossing? Results from a driving simulator based paradigm
    M.H. Cale, A. Gellert, N. Katz & W. Sommer

    An innovative information gathering and data analysis platform for railway level crossing safety data
    C.Wullems, Y. Toft & G. Dell

    Reducing the number and impact of railway underline bridge strikes
    M.J. Stout & D. Basacik


    Developing methodology in restrail for the preliminary evaluation of preventative measures for railway suicide and trespass
    B. Ryan &V.-P. Kallberg

    Musculoskeletal Disorder and cab design

    Musculoskeletal Disorder risk assessment tool for train drivers
    A. Scott & M. Stout

    A driver-centred driver’s safety device
    D. Hitchcock, C. Morris & A. Taylor

    Static anthropometry measures of tram drivers in Bosnia & Herzegovina important for tram control panel design
    D. Sumpor, Z. Toš & N. Musabašic

    Driver advisory system and automation

    Human factor challenges in the development of a Driver Advisory System for regional passenger trains
    T. Albrecht

    Automation effects in train driving with train protection systems – assessing person- and task-related factors
    S. Giesemann

    Designing train Driver Advisory Systems for situation awareness
    S. Tschirner, A.W. Andersson & B. Sandblad

    The state of the information environment of the crew’s cabin according to progress of systematisation
    M. Kuratani


    A comparative cognitive task analysis of the different forms of driving in the UK rail system
    A. Buksh, S. Sharples, J.R.Wilson, A. Coplestone & G. Morrisroe

    Bridging the gap between technology and adoption: A case study
    E. Thompson, T. Kazi &A. Scott

    A method for assessing drivability for ETCS cab retrofit
    H. Blanchard

    Investigating the effects of the ERTMS driver machine interface on train driver behaviour and railway safety
    L. Kecklund, A. LindgrenWalter & E. Nordlöf


    The implications of automation on human intervention at London Underground
    J.Wackrow & A. Slamen

    Human factors for the London Underground stations upgrade programme
    N. Scard & G. Brown

    The observatron: Collecting task time data using a bespoke software application
    P. Salkeld

    Meeting the challenges of Human Factors Integration in a multi-stage project to re-signal and re-control a metro
    S. Heape

    Fitting a Jubilee line shaped peg into a Northern line shaped hole
    L. Kelly

    Applying current alarm management guidance for a 21st century railway
    J. Murphy, M. Lowten & K. Hope

    Developing a tram driver route learning training simulator for Manchester’s Metrolink Trams
    I. Rowe

    Amsterdam Metro cab: Ergonomics in the design, verification and validation process
    R. van derWeide, H.F.L. Frieling, F. Malle & D. Miglianico

    Reflections on the progress and lessons learnt from implementing human factors in MTR Corporation operations division
    K. Priestley & Z. Tse

    Managing the risks associated with a basic yet critical maintenance operation in the Paris metro workshops
    J.-P. Bert & F. Jubert

    Safety assessment of CCTV for platform interface tasks – Sydney Suburban Trains
    P. Traub & G. Fraser


    Work patterns of freight drivers and recovery from shift work
    K.A. Robertson, M.B. Spencer, A. McGuffog, S. Hesketh & A. Mills

    On-call scheduling in rail maintenance – diary research challenges in an industrial context
    N. Cebola, D. Golightly, J.R.Wilson & E. Lowe

    Fatigue, anxiety, and performance for on-call safety critical decision makers in rail maintenance – a diary study
    N. Cebola, D. Golightly, J.R.Wilson & E. Lowe

    Rail staff fatigue – the GB regulator’s perspective on managing the risks
    J. Mawhood & C. Dickinson

    Can you know if someone is too tired to drive safely?
    M. Cale, I. Haimov, Y. Shafran & O. Tzischinsky

    Traffic management

    ‘He’s not from around here!’ The significance of local knowledge
    L. Pickup, N. Balfe, E. Lowe & J.R.Wilson

    A sociotechnical comparison of automated train traffic control between GB and Sweden
    D. Golightly, B. Sandblad, N. Dadashi, A.W. Andersson, S. Tschirner & S. Sharples

    Dispatching, planning, passenger support, multi-actor systems and organizational structures in The Netherlands Railways (NS)
    N.R. Faber & R.J. Jorna

    Analysis of collaboration applied to train drivers and train traffic controllers in Sweden
    S. Tschirner, B. Sandblad, A.W. Andersson, P. Hellström & G. Isaksson-Lutteman

    Requirements elicitation for disruption management support
    N. Dadashi, D. Golightly & S. Sharples

    Signaller information use in traffic regulation decisions
    C. Patrick, N. Balfe, J.R.Wilson & R. Houghton

    The future of signaller workload assessments in an automated world
    N. Hayden-Smith

    Using graphical support tools to encourage active planning at stations
    R. Charles, N. Balfe, J.R.Wilson, S. Sharples & M. Carey

    Track worker

    Applying lean techniques to analyse railway possessions and isolations to identify opportunities for more effective procedures
    W. Garner & S. Stiles

    Perceptions of accident risk among on-track machine workers: An interview study
    J.I. Morgan, R. Abbott, P. Furness & S.Webster-Spriggs

    Designing mobile user experiences: Disruptive innovation in railway asset information
    R. Bye

    HF integration

    Systems approaches in ergonomics/human factors applied within rail systems engineering

    Humans as an asset in a system consideration on the contribution of humans to system performance and system safety
    M.P. Zeilstra & R. van derWeide

    Organisational and human aspects of safety at border crossings
    V. Papillault & C. Neveu

    Rules and standards

    Evaluation of the new approach rule book
    A. Mills, S. Evans, H. Gibson & A. Monk

    ‘We were doing this before human factors was invented’ – signals standards from a user-centred perspective
    T. Flint & R. Barrow

    Current practices of the assessment and acceptance of risks related to human interactions within the European railways
    L. Kecklund, A.O. Mowitz & M. Antova


    Non-technical skills for rail: Development, piloting, evaluation, and implementation of courses for front-line staff and managers
    K. Bonsall-Clarke & S. Pugh

    The introduction of non-technical skills into a train driver competence management system
    A.J. Russell, S. Bailey &A.C. Moore

    Achieving compliance through people: Training supervisors to tackle procedural non-compliance
    P. Leach, R. Canham & J. Berman

    Searching for safe drivers: Challenges in making decisions about test use in safety critical industries
    S. Evans, C. Johnson & T. Flint

    Human factors awareness training for incident investigators: What impact has it had three years later?
    S. Evans

    The development of a risk-based training needs analysis methodology and tool
    P. Shah, A. Taylor & K. Bonsall-Clarke

    A good practice guide on competence development
    P. Shah, K. Bonsall-Clarke & A. Taylor

    Raising awareness of risk perception: When, how, who
    P. Calvo Holgado, C. García Suárez & B. Gil de Egea

    Safety culture

    Human error prevention effect of point and call check used by railway workers in Japan
    M. Shigemori, A. Sato, T. Masuda & S. Haga

    Our efforts in developing a safety culture – establishment of safety management system on the basis of risk assessment
    Y. Mito

    Study of effective praise in train driver’s workplace
    T. Horishita, K. Yamaura & M. Kanayama

    Study of train drivers’ work motivation and its relationship to organisational factors in a Japanese railway company
    H. Fujino, T. Horishita, T. Sonoda & H. Yamaguchi

    Mental workload and situation awareness

    Prediction of mental workload of monitoring tasks
    C.Weeda & M. Zeilstra

    Subjective mental workload of Dutch train dispatchers: Validation of IWS in a practical setting
    M.S.Wilms & M.P. Zeilstra

    Incident investigation

    Incident Factor Classification System
    W.H. Gibson, S. Smith, E. Lowe, A.M. Mills, G. Morse & S. Carpenter

    Developing an effective corrective action process: Lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system
    J. Multer, J. Ranney, J. Hile &T. Raslear

    Human reliability

    Railway action reliability assessment, a railway-specific approach to human error quantification
    W.H. Gibson, A.M. Mills, S. Smith & B.K. Kirwan

    Human factors in railway vehicle axle inspection
    M.J. Stout,W.H. Gibson, K. Timmis & S. Mills

    The retrospective use of AcciMaps in the graphical representation of rail incidents
    A. Farooqi, B. Ryan & J.R.Wilson

    A new approach for the assessment of human reliability in German railway risk assessments
    B. Milius

    The influence of selecting a specific sample of hazardous events on the evaluation of the train driver’s reliability
    T. Lindner

    Modeling human-machine interaction for the assessment of human reliability
    D. Schwencke, J. Grippenkoven & K. Lemmer

    Humanscan®: A software solution towards the management of human reliability in the rail industry
    B. Gil de Egea, P. Calvo Holgado & C. García Suárez

    Resilience and emergency

    Proposition of an organisational resilience assessment framework dedicated to railway traffic management
    E. Rigaud, C. Neveu, S. Duvenci-Langa, M.-N. Obrist & S. Rigaud

    A study of evacuation guidance in earthquake and tsunami disaster
    T. Yamakawa

    Safety and evacuations: A risk assessment of the potential use of bidirectional video communication in safe rooms
    S.M. Brotnov, A.-M. Braaten & S. Zarghooni

    Author index


    Nastaran Dadashi, Anita Scott, John R Wilson, Ann Mills