This unique and up-to-date work surveys the use of mechatronics in rail vehicles, notably traction, braking, communications, data sharing, and control. The results include improved safety, comfort, and fuel efficiency.
Mechatronic systems are a key element in modern rail vehicle design and operation. Starting with an overview of mechatronic theory, the book goes on to cover topics including modeling of mechanical and electrical systems for rail vehicles, open and closed loop control systems, sensors, actuators and microprocessors. Modern simulation techniques and examples are included throughout, and numerical experiments and developed models for railway application are presented and explained. Case studies are used, alongside practical examples, to ensure that the reader can apply mechatronic theory to real world conditions. These case studies include modeling of a hybrid locomotive and simplified models of railway vehicle lateral dynamics for suspension control studies.
Rail Vehicle Mechatronics provides current and in-depth content for design engineers, operations managers, systems engineers and technical consultants world-wide, working with freight, passenger, and urban transit railway systems.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Mechatronics 1.1 Historical review 1.2 Theoretical aspects for the application of mechatronic system 1.2.1 Stability and curving 1.2.3 Ride comfort 1.3 Structure of the book 2 Modelling of Mechanical Systems for Rail Vehicles 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Classification for theoretical and experimental based modeling approaches 2.2.1 Physical-based models 2.2.2 Black-box models 2.3 Model of wheel/rail contact 2.3.1 Geometric analysis of wheel/rail contact, equivalent conicity 2.3.2 The normal contact analysis: normal force, contact patch and normal stresses 2.3.3 The tangential contact analysis: creepage versus creep force relationship 2.4 Modeling of track and track irregularities 2.4.1 The track system 2.4.2 Nominal track geometry 2.4.3 Track irregularity 2.4.4 Track models for vehicle dynamics simulation 2.5 Model of suspension components 2.5.1 Primary and secondary suspensions in railway vehicles 2.5.2 Coil springs, rubber springs and bushings 2.5.3 Friction-based suspension components 2.5.4 Hydraulic dampers 2.5.5 Air spring suspension 2.6 Pantograph-catenary interaction 2.7 Traction and braking dynamics, control and modeling 2.7.1 Principles of traction and braking dynamics 2.7.2 Design principles of traction and braking control 2.7.3 Modeling of the traction systems 2.8 Train dynamics 2.8.1 Train dynamics for a single vehicle 2.8.2 Longitudinal train dynamics 2.9 Pneumatic brake models 2.10 Modeling of inter-car forces 3 Modelling of Electrical Systems for Rail Vehicles 3.1 Electrical Topologies 3.1.1 Diesel Electric Locomotives 3.1.2 Electric Locomotives 3.1.3 Hybrids 3.2 Traction Power Supplies 3.2.1 Alternators and generators 3.2.2 Rectifiers 3.2.3 Energy Storage 3.2.4 Dynamic braking energy management 3.3 Traction Motors and Power Electronics 3.3.1 DC Motors 3.3.2 Induction machines 3.3.3 Synchronous 3.3.4 Brushless DC 3.3.5 Slip control 4 Control Systems 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Open-loop and closed-loop control systems 4.3 Classical control 4.4.1 Closed-loop transfer function 4.4.2 PID feedback control 4.4 Modern control approach 4.4.1 State space representation 4.4.2 Pole placement 4.4.3. Observer design technique 4.4.4 Optimal control 4.5 Non-classical control methods 4.5.1 Fuzzy control 4.5.2 Neural network-based control 5 Actuators 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Electro-mechanical actuators 5.2.1 Direct current (DC) motors 5.2.2 Alternating current (AC) motors 5.2.3 Mechanical transmission 5.2.4 Model of an electromechanical actuator with brushless AC motor 5.3 Hydraulic Actuators 5.3.1 Fluid Power System Basics 5.3.2 Hydraulic fluids properties 5.3.3 Managing Hydraulic fluids 5.3.4 Hydraulic Cylinders 5.3.5 Hydraulic Motors 5.3.6 Modelling Control Valves 5.3.7 Closed Loop Controls 5.3.8 Dynamic Performance Modelling of Actuator Systems 5.3.9 Applications 5.3.10 Overall Summary 5.4 Pneumatic Actuators 5.4.1 Pneumatic Power Systems Basics 5.4.2 Air Properties 5.4.3 Pneumatic Cylinders 5.4.4 Air Motors 5.4.5 Control Valves 5.4.6 Restrictions and Chokes 5.4.7 Applications 5.4.8 Overall Summary 6 Sensors 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Displacement sensors 6.2.1 Resistive sensors 6.2.2 Capacitive sensors 6.2.3 Linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) 6.3 Encoders 6.4 Speed sensors 6.5 Accelerometers 6.5.1 Piezoelectric accelerometers 6.5.2 Capacitive accelerometers 6.6 Pressure sensors 6.7 Measurement of force and torque in mechatronic railway vehicles 7 Modelling of Complex System 7.1 Basic principle of complex system design 7.2 Introduction of co-simulation 7.3 Co-simulation techniques 7.4 Review of the existing software packages and their co-simulation functionalities 7.4.1 Gensys and Matlab/Simulink 7.4.2 SIMPACK and Simulink 7.4.3 VI-Rail (ADAMS/Rail) and Simulink 7.4.4 VAMPIRE and Simulink 7.4.5 Universal Mechanism and Simulink 7.5 Design of co-simulation interfaces 7.5.1 Design of the simple Simulink model and generation of the shared library 7.5.2 Shared Library Integration in the Code 7.5.3 Compilation and execution of the Code 7.6 Case studies 7.6.1 Co-simulation for a locomotive traction control study 7.6.2 Co-simulation for an advanced longitudinal train dynamics study 8 Microprocessor computers and electronics 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Microprocessors versus Microcontrollers 8.2.1 Microprocessors 8.2.2 Microcontrollers 8.3 Control Computers 8.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers 8.3.2 Field Programmable Gate Arrays 8.4 Multi-module structures for microprocessor-based control systems 8.5 Case Study – Microcontroller in Monitoring System 8.5.1 Design 8.5.2 Problem Formulation 8.5.3 Solution 9 Communications, networks and data exchange protocols 9.1 Introduction 9.1.1 Intra-car communication architecture 9.1.2 Inter-car communication architecture 9.1.3 Train-to-ground communication architecture 9.2 Common Type of Networks 9.2.1 Wired networks 9.2.2 Wireless networks 9.2.3 Mixed networks 9.3 Common Communication Protocols 9.4 Case study - electronically controlled pneumatic brakes communication network 9.4.1 Inception of electronically controlled pneumatic brakes 9.4.2 Network communication 9.4.3 Device types 9.4.4 Problem formulation 9.4.5 Solution – drawback 1 9.4.6 Solution – drawback 2 10 Data acquisition and data processing techniques 10.1 Introduction 10.2 General layout of a data acquisition and data processing system 10.3 Signal conditioning 10.4 Analog-to-digital conversion 10.4.1 Quantization and quantization error 10.4.2 Sampling frequency and aliasing 10.4.3 Anti-aliasing filters and oversampling 10.5 Digital-to-analog conversion 10.6 Digital filters 10.7 Frequency Analysis for discrete signals 11 Mechatronic suspensions 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Active primary suspensions 11.2.1 Active primary suspension functions 11.2.2 Active primary suspension configurations 11.2.3 Control strategies for active primary suspensions 11.3 Active and semi-active secondary suspensions 11.3.1 Active and semi-active secondary suspension functions 11.3.2 Configurations and hardware 11.3.3 Control strategies for active and semi-active secondary suspensions 11.4 Car body tilting systems 11.5 Active suspensions for non-conventional vehicle architectures 12 Real-time systems 12.1 Introduction: Aims of Real-Time Studies 12.2 What is a real-time system? 12.3 Requirements for the development of programming code for a real-time application 12.4 Requirements for the development of real-time multibody models 12.5 Real-time prototyping and testing 12.5.1 Software-in-the-loop approach 12.5.2 Hardware-in-the-loop approach 12.6 Case study - Development of a real-time multibody model 13 System Integration 13.1 Interpretation of system integration 13.2 Interdisciplinary approach for design and evaluation processes 13.3 Systems integration activities 13.4 Rail vehicle specific standards and guidelines 14 Practical examples and studies 14.1 Case A – Simplified models of railway vehicle lateral dynamics for suspension control studies 14.1.1 The 2-DOFs wheelset model 14.1.2 The 6-DOFs bogie model 14.2 Case B – Modelling of a bogie with active steering system 14.2.1 Basic principle of active steering system for solid-axle wheelset 14.2.2 Vehicle model built in SIMPACK 14.2.3 Controller and Actuator model in SIMULINK 14.2.4 Simulation scenarios and results 14.3 Case C - Modelling of a heavy haul diesel-electric locomotive traction power system 14.3.1 Modelling concept 14.3.2 Implementation in Simulink 14.3.3 Simulation scenarios and results 14.4 Case D - Modelling of a hybrid locomotive 14.4.1 Locomotive design modification 14.4.2 Modelling of ESS traction system for the hybrid locomotive 14.4.3 Implementation in Simulink 14.4.4 Simulation scenarios and results
Maksym Spiryagin is the Deputy Director of the Centre for Railway Engineering and a Professor of Engineering at Central Queensland University. He received his PhD in the field of Railway Transport in 2004. Professor Spiryagin’s involvement in academia and railway industry projects includes many years of research experience in locomotive design and traction, rail vehicle dynamics, contact mechanics, wear, mechatronics and the development of complex systems using various approaches. He has published four books, including ‘Design and simulation of rail vehicles’ in 2014 and ‘Design and simulation of heavy haul locomotives and trains’ in 2017, and he has more than two hundred other scientific publications and twenty patents as one of the inventors. Professor Spiryagin is a Chartered Professional Engineer and RPEQ in Australia and a Chartered Engineer in the UK.
Stefano Bruni is full professor at Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, where he teaches applied mechanics and dynamics. He is the leader of the "Railway Dynamics" research group, carrying out research on rail vehicles and their interaction with the infrastructure. Prof. Bruni authored over 270 scientific papers, mostly related to rail vehicle dynamics, train-track interaction, wheel/rail contact forces, damage and wear of wheels and rails, active control and condition monitoring of rail vehicles, and pantograph-catenary interaction. He is / has been lead scientist for several research projects funded by the railway industry and by the European Commission. He is Vice-President of the IAVSD, the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, and was chairman of the IAVSD’05 International conference held in Milano in 2005. He is Editorial Board member for some international journals in the field of Railway Engineering.
Chris Bosomworth has worked for the Centre for Railway Engineering at Central Queensland University for over 15 years, firstly on software engineering for railway applications in direct employment and then as a subcontractor as a part of Insyte Solutions Pty Ltd on various simulation, instrumentation and mechatronic projects related to train, locomotive and wagon dynamics. He has a deep expertise in high quality code writing, data acquisition, field testing, instrumentation and microprocessor-based system design and development services.
Peter Wolfs is Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at CQU. He is a Fellow of Engineers Australia, a senior member of IEEE and an associate member of the Centre for Railway Engineering. His special fields of expertise include electrical power distribution, power quality and harmonics, railway traction power supply, renewable energy supply, solar and hybrid electric vehicles and intelligent systems applications in power systems and railways. He received his PhD in the area of High Frequency Link Power Conversion in 1992 from the University of Queensland. He has more than two hundred scientific publications, four book chapters and five patents as one of the inventors.
Colin Cole is the Director of the Centre for Railway Engineering at CQU. He has worked in the Australian rail industry since 1984, starting with six years in mechanized track maintenance for Queensland Railways. Since then, he has focused on a research and consulting career involving work on track maintenance, train and wagon dynamics, train control technologies and the development of on-board devices. He has been extensively engaged with industry via the past nationally funded Rail CRC programs and the Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation. His PhD was in Longitudinal Train Dynamics Modelling. He has authored and/or co-authored over two hundred technical papers, two books, numerous commercial research and consulting reports, and has developed two patents relating to in-cabin locomotive technologies.