1st Edition

Rammed Earth Conservation

Edited By C. Mileto, F. Vegas, V. Cristini Copyright 2012

    Includes a free CD containing the full contents of the book.

    The rammed earth technique, in all its variants, is widespread all over the world. This enormously prevalent building technique harbours an important richness of varieties both in application and in materials used. Interventions on historical rammed earth buildings have also been carried out in all the geographical areas where these structures are found. This historical heritage has undergone diverse forms of reconstruction, conservation, repair, substitution and/or structural consolidation. The different criteria applied require different techniques, materials or forms of intervention. The results of the interventions have also been manifold, both in terms of the impact on the building and the technical and material durability. With a view to these issues, this book deals with rammed earth architecture and its restoration, and, in a more general sense, with the construction techniques and restoration of all earthen structures.

    Rammed Earth Conservation will be a valuable source of information for academics and professionals in the fields of Civil Engineering, Construction and Building Engineering and Architecture.



    Organization and committees

    Conference sponsors

    Plenary lectures

    “Pisé”: Evolution, innovations, resistances and future directions
    H. Guillaud

    Which course of action for earthen architectural heritage preservation?
    M. Correia

    Earthen architecture: Clay feet or a feat of clay
    F.G. Matero

    Restoration of rammed earth structures
    F.J. López Martínez

    The Nasrid ramparts of the Albaicín (Granada, Spain): An analysis of materials and building techniques
    J.M. López Osorio

    Torres Bermejas: Conserving the past
    J. Gallego Roca

    Rammed earth architecture and construction

    Methodological proposal for rammed-earth wall characterization: Understanding of material in preliminary studies
    F.J. Alejandre, J.J. Martín-del-Río, F.J. Blasco & V. Flores

    The formalization as an identification process of a constructive way: The rammed earth of Cherchell (Algeria)
    S. Alliche & Y. Chennaoui

    Traditional braces for rammed earth walls constructions in La Manchuela albaceteña, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
    Q. Angulo, Á. Mas & J.L. Santolaria

    Godelleta’s watchtower (Valencia, Spain)
    S. Baños, A.C. Barbosa, B. Herrero, I. Jordán, I. Ontiveros & S.S. Sánchez

    Earthen architectural heritage in the South Piedmont area (Italy): Strategies for its re-evaluation and for local territorial sustainable development
    G. Bollini & I. Parodi

    The rammed earth walls in the watchtowers of the order of Santiago in Albacete province (Spain)
    F.J. Castilla, J.L. Serrano & D. Sanz

    Montroy Islamic Tower (Valencia, Spain)
    P. de Mazarredo, A. Garre, V. Lassala, R. Martínez García de la Cuadra & E. Méndez

    Sustainability lessons from the past: Rammed earth architecture in Vojvodina, Serbia
    Z. Djordjevic

    The monitoring of rammed earth experimental walls and characterization of rammed earth samples
    P. Faria, V. Silva, C. Pereira & M. Rocha

    Earthen architecture in Galicia (Spain): Rammed earth in Terra de Lemos
    A. Fernández Palicio

    Rammed earth walls in Serón de Nágima castle (Soria, Spain): Constructive lecture 1
    I.J. Gil

    Rammed earth—its use in new building and training as a building-school
    A. González & G. Mingolla

    Patrimonial rammed earth structures at the Sierra Nevada, Mexico
    L.F. Guerrero

    Characterization of compressed earth blocks built with natural low-cost energy stabilizers
    C. Guerrieri

    Rammed earth architecture in the middle course of the river Júcar, Spain
    J. Hidalgo & I. Matoses

    About the rediscovery of the tapia valenciana
    F. Iborra

    Clay in architecture: Slovenia and beyond
    B. Juvanec

    From the ground up: Building the Dirt Works Studio
    C. Kraus

    On perceptions of rammed earth
    C. Kraus

    The construction of the Valencian rammed earth walls in the Corpus Christi College-Seminary in Valencia (Spain)
    C. Lerma, Á. Mas & E. Gil

    Rammed-earth construction in Southern Morocco: A reappraisal of the technology
    J.M. López Osorio, A. Montiel & U. Martín

    Analysis parameters for systematization of rammed earth walls in Granada and Almería (Andalucía, Spain)
    J.Mª. Martín & M. Martín

    Rammed earth construction in El Rincón de Ademuz (Spain)
    C. Mileto, F. Vegas, L. García Soriano & M. Mestre

    Building rammed earth walls in the municipal swimming pool in Toro (Zamora, Spain)
    A. Raya, C. Crespo, S. Sánchez & E. Antelo

    Introduction to traditional rammed-earth building in the Aragonian valley of Jiloca (Spain)
    F.A. Rivas

    The citadel of Reina (Badajoz, Spain)—10 years of interventions on its walls
    M. Rocha

    Rammed earth architecture in La Hacienda de Santa Teresa Ixtafiayuca, Mexico
    M. Rodríguez Licea & L.F. Guerrero

    Restoration of the gypsum wall built with formwork in the tower of the castle of Villel (Teruel, Spain)
    J.M. Sanz

    Rammed earth floors in historic orangeries and greenhouses—Belvedere castle in Weimar, Germany
    H. Schroeder, D. Ahrendt & C. Hille

    Optimal rammed earth wall thickness for a single-family house in Serbia
    S. Stevanović

    Rammed earth in Moravia (Czech Republic) in the context of neighboring lands
    Z. Syrová & J. Syrový

    Valencian tapia in the walled city of Mascarell (Castellón, Spain)
    F. Taberner

    Experience of rammed earth construction—rural and urban India
    C. Vishwanath & S. Nayak

    Conservation of rammed earth

    The restoration of tapia structures in the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo (Granada, Spain)
    A. Almagro & A. Orihuela

    The Moroccan Drâa Valley earthen architecture: Pathology and intervention criteria
    E. Baglioni, L. Rovero & U. Tonietti

    Characterization of the rammed-earth structure of the Moon Castle in Mairena del Alcor (Seville, Spain)
    A. Barrios, A. Graciani & L. Núñez

    Structural criteria for the restoration of rammed earth buildings in Barcelona province (Spain)
    S. Bestraten & E. Hormias

    Restoration of the rammed earth walls of the Generalife, (Granada, Spain)
    I. Bestué & F.J. López Martínez

    Characterization methodology to efficiently manage the conservation of historical rammed-earth buildings
    J. Canivell

    Critical analysis of interventions in historical rammed-earth walls—military buildings in the ancient Kingdom of Seville
    J. Canivell & A. Graciani

    Core, connectors and crust: Methodological restoration options for reinforced rammed earth wall with bricks
    V. Cristini & J.R. Ruiz Checa

    Preliminary study to the restoration of the Tower Keep in Jérica (Castellón, Spain)
    J. deNeui, A. Lamas, J.V. Mañes, P. Moreno, G. Ramo, A. Rico & F. Rubio

    Interventions in Portuguese rammed earth architecture—from ignorance to good practices
    M. Fernandes

    Intervention in a rammed earth tower at the castle of Oropesa del Mar (Castellón, Spain)
    F. Font

    Restoration of Llotja del Cànem (Castellón, Spain) walls—“Witnesses of History”
    J.I. Fuster, A. Gallud & M. del Rey

    Restoration criteria of the Valencian rammed earth walls
    M. Galarza

    Consolidation and restoration of the Castle of Biar, Spain
    A. Gallud, M. del Rey & J.I. Fuster

    Restoration of monumental rammed earth buildings in Spain between 1980 and 2011 according to the Archives of the IPCE
    L. García Soriano, C. Mileto, F. Vegas & S. García Saez

    Preliminary studies for intervention, interpretation and value enhancement of Tower of Don Fadrique (Albaida, Seville, Spain)
    A. Graciani, J.J. Martín, G.M. Mora, F.J. Alejandre & J. Canivell

    Restoration of the rammed earth walls of the Poniente Tower and the Alafia wall in the fortified complex of Xivert (Castellón, Spain)
    V. Hofbauerová

    Conservation of rammed earth works in the Islamic fortified complex of Calatayud (Spain)
    P. Iglesias, B. Rodríguez Nuere, M.D. González Casado & E. Bailliet

    Rammed earth wall restoration method using the earth reintegration technique by ramming
    F. Jové, F. Díaz-Pinés, J.L. Sáinz Guerra & P. Olmos

    Restoration of rammed earth architecture: The projects funded by the Diputación Provincial de Valencia (Spain)
    V. La Spina, F. Martella, C. Mileto & F. Vegas

    Restoration of the Castle of Sot de Chera’s Tower (Valencia, Spain)
    V. López Mateu, S. Tormo & T.M. Pellicer

    Restoration of rammed earth architecture in the Iberian Peninsula: Ongoing research
    C. Mileto, F. Vegas, V. Cristini & L. García Soriano

    Reflections about the restoration of a rammed earth Islamic tower
    C. Mileto & F. Vegas

    Restoration of two rammed earth walls at Sagunto’s castle (Valencia, Spain)
    M.E. Moliner, L.M. Almena, C. Camps & S. Tormo

    Restoration of the Andalusí wall of the Alcazaba Antigua (Ancient Citadel) of Granada (Spain)
    A. Orihuela & J.M. Castillo-Martínez

    Historical rammed-earth structures in Eastern Andalusia: (Spain) The restoration philosophy of the architect Prieto-Moreno
    A. Romero & J.M. López Osorio

    Restoration of the stone tapia of hsin al-Qala (Castell d’Alcalà de Gallinera), Alicante, Spain
    A. Soler, R. Soler & J.R. Ortega

    The valencian rammed-earth wall (“tapia valenciana”) in the restoration of Alaquàs Castle (Valencia, Spain)
    S. Tormo, V. García Martínez, L. Cortés & L. Palaia

    Xàtiva’s Castle (Spain)—constructive analysis of rammed-earth walls and its interventions
    V. Torregrosa, S. Tormo & M. Torregrosa

    Earthen architecture and construction

    Ksar of Timinoun—a Saharan traditional earthen architecture heritage
    N.A. Mahindad

    Cob, a handy technique for a new self-builder
    M. Alcindor & O. Roselló

    Analysis and characterization of earthen architecture as a structural material: The corbelled course domes in Syria
    A. Alonso, A. Martínez Boquera & V. Llopis

    Municipal School in Santa Eulalia de Ronçana, Barcelona, Spain
    G. Barbeta, P. Palau & E. Navarrete

    Earthen and water architecture: University workshop in Ksar of Tamnougalt, Drâa valley (Morocco)
    F.J. Bautista, M. Sevilla, F. García Carrillo, M.G. Aguilar & A. Torices

    Infomes de la Construcción, Nº 523 Monograph Earth as building material, a contemporary approach
    S. Bestraten & E. Hormias

    The first Italian experience of industrialized earthen products for the building trade
    G. Bollini

    Earthen building: A comparative analysis of three texts
    C.A. Cacciavillani

    Embodied energy assessment of rammed earth construction in Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid, Spain)
    F.J. Castilla & A. Baño

    Earthen architecture in Southern Morocco
    F. Cherradi

    Cataloging and typological study of Mgoun Valley’s traditional fortified architecture, Morocco
    G. Cimadomo, J.A. Simón & A. Vacas

    Contemporary earth houses and evolution models in the Mgoun Valley, Morocco
    L. Díaz del Pino, M.A. García Alcántara & D. Natoli

    Lunch in the domes of Tierra de Campos (Palencia, Spain)
    P. Díez Rodríguez

    Constructive systems in the Spanish North-western area
    J. Font

    Earth’s role on Moroccan High Atlas villages’ urban evolution
    A. García Ramos, B. Marín, M.M. Carrión, J.M. Mateos & P. García Sáez

    Learning approach from the invariants of earthen construction in Andalusia, Spain
    A.M. González Serrano, R. Rodríguez García, A. Romero, J. Canivell & M. Ponce

    Earthen architecture in Guatemala
    G.P. Gordon

    Earth and gunpowder: The earth in the modern fortresses
    G. Guimaraens, J.F. Noguera & V. Navalón

    Mixed building techniques in Abruzzi (Italy): Cob, adobe, stone and brick
    C. Mazzanti

    Earthen architecture landscapes as identity items in southern Morocco—Studies in Mgoun Valley, High Atlas
    B. Nogueira, J. Asencio, T. García Ruiz de Mier & I. Álvarez-Ossorio

    The barraca of the Valencian agriculture field: A construction built with earthen techniques
    R. Pastor, V. Blanca & J.M. Ozores

    Excavated housing in Crevillente (Spain): Constructive and typological study
    B. Piedecausa

    Peruvian earthen architecture: Reflections on traditional constructive techniques
    J.R. Ruiz Checa & V. Cristini

    Earth construction techniques in the Northern High Atlas, Morocco
    P. Rodríguez-Navarro, F. Juan Vidal, T. Gil & F. Fantini

    Earth constructive systems in northeastern Segovian domestic architecture
    A. Romero & A. Vela

    Earthen structures in the missions of Baja California (Mexico)
    M.Á. Sorroche

    The architecture of earth in the northwest of Argentina: Tradition and modernity
    M.E. Sosa

    Earth architecture and construction in the colonial archaeological site of Piura la Vieja, La Matanza (Piura, Peru)
    F. Vela, L.F. Abril & A. García Hermida

    Earthen architecture, an evergreen type of building method
    D. Zupančič

    Conservation of earthen architecture

    Elements for the definition of good practices for the conservation and the restoration of the historical urban fabric of a Moroccan pre-Saharan oasis
    M. Achenza

    Cave-Houses in Valtierra, Navarra, Spain
    C. Ardanaz

    Cobquecura, a southern earthen Chilean town: Intervention criteria for the reconstruction after Chilean 2010 earthquake
    E. Baglioni & N. Jorquera

    Preventive maintenance of an Himalayan earthen temple and studies on its reduced scale model
    M. Bertagnin & D. De Antoni

    Cooperation projects for the preservation of earth architecture in Chiquitos, Bolivia 1
    S. Bestraten & E. Hormias

    Vernacular adobe architecture in Texas: Conservative issues
    A. Bianco

    Test and device to evaluate the capillary absorption in soil specimens of adobe and rammed earth
    S.A. Cirvini & J.A. Gómez Voltan

    Earthen domes in Northern Syria: Problems and criteria for the conservation
    L. Dipasquale & S. Mecca

    Defense tower turned into an artist bottega
    P. Díez Rodríguez

    Earth-based repair mortars: Experimental analysis with different binders and natural fibers
    M.I. Gomes, T. Diaz Gonçalves & P. Faria

    Buddhist clay sculptures in Central Asia: Conservation and restoration problems
    M. López Prat

    Energy rehabilitation of buildings of earthen construction
    A. Lozano, J.M. Lozano & A. Ruiz Taroncher

    Aït Ben Haddou—Fortified City, Ouarzazate, Morocco
    P. Martínez Barranco

    Conservation of earthen constructions: Earth-gypsum plasters
    M. Mattone & E. Bignamini

    The ksour of the Saharan Atlas of Algeria: Reflection on conservation issues
    A. Mebarki

    Earth and bricks architecture: For a conservation of stratigraphical traces
    D. Pittaluga

    Repair of rammed earth walls in the walled enclosure of Daroca (Zaragoza, Spain)
    J.M. Sanz

    Linhas de Torres historic route rescuing and enhancing earthworks
    A.C. Sousa & J.S. Gomes

    Author index


    Mileto, C. ; Vegas, F. ; Cristini, V.