Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys

1st Edition

By Arijit Chaudhuri

Chapman and Hall/CRC

228 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138115422
pub: 2017-05-31
Hardback: 9781439836576
pub: 2010-12-16
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429151422
pub: 2016-04-19
from $39.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


For surveys involving sensitive questions, randomized response techniques (RRTs) and other indirect questions are helpful in obtaining survey responses while maintaining the privacy of the respondents. Written by one of the leading experts in the world on RR, Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys describes the current state of RR as well as emerging developments in the field. The author also explains how to extend RR to situations employing unequal probability sampling.

While the theory of RR has grown phenomenally, the area has not kept pace in practice. Covering both theory and practice, the book first discusses replacing a direct response (DR) with an RR in a simple random sample with replacement (SRSWR). It then emphasizes how the application of RRTs in the estimation of attribute or quantitative features is valid for selecting respondents in a general manner. The author examines different ways to treat maximum likelihood estimation; covers optional RR devices, which provide alternatives to compulsory randomized response theory; and presents RR techniques that encompass quantitative variables, including those related to stigmatizing characteristics. He also gives his viewpoint on alternative RR techniques, including the item count technique, nominative technique, and three-card method.


The book compiles the important mathematical contributions in the area of RR … readers interested in a summary of the statistical advances on RR will certainly find this book to be a good resource. … It is a well-written and edited book and I congratulate the author for his work.

—Mariano Ruiz Espejo, Biometrics, December 2012

Table of Contents

Why We Need One More Monograph on Randomized Response

Warner’s Randomized Response Technique


Warner Model

Simple Random Sampling with Replacement

Chaudhuri and Pal’s Estimators

Chaudhuri, Bose, and Dihidar’s Estimators

Inverse SRSWR

Randomized Response Technique in General Sampling Design


Warner’s Model

Unrelated Question Model

Kuk’s RRT

Christofides’s RRT

Forced Response Scheme

Mangat and Singh’s RRT

Mangat’s Scheme

Mangat, Singh, and Singh’s Scheme

Singh and Joarder’s Scheme

Dalenius and Vitale’s Scheme

Takahasi and Sakasegawa’s Scheme Modified by Pal

Liu, Chow, and Mosley’s RRT

Maximum Likelihood Approach



Optional Randomized Response Technique




Protection of Privacy



Quantitative Characteristics


Review of Literature

Other Indirect Questioning Techniques


Item Count Technique

Nominative Technique

The Three-Cards Method

Miscellaneous Techniques, Applications, and Conclusions




Illustrative Simulated Empirical Findings

Warner’s RR versus Unrelated Question Model-Based RR in Unequal Probability Sampling as against Equal Probability Sampling

Simulated Illustration of a Numerical Study of "Protection of Privacy" in RR Surveys

Concluding Remarks



About the Author

Arijit Chaudhuri is a professor in the Applied Statistics Unit at the Indian Statistical Institute. Dr. Chaudhuri has published nearly 90 research papers in a variety of journals. He is the co-author of Survey Sampling: Theory and Methods, Second Edition (CRC Press, March 2005). His research interests include survey sampling and reliability.

About the Series

Statistics: A Series of Textbooks and Monographs

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General