Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys  book cover
1st Edition

Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys

ISBN 9781439836576
Published December 16, 2010 by Chapman and Hall/CRC
228 Pages

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Book Description

For surveys involving sensitive questions, randomized response techniques (RRTs) and other indirect questions are helpful in obtaining survey responses while maintaining the privacy of the respondents. Written by one of the leading experts in the world on RR, Randomized Response and Indirect Questioning Techniques in Surveys describes the current state of RR as well as emerging developments in the field. The author also explains how to extend RR to situations employing unequal probability sampling.

While the theory of RR has grown phenomenally, the area has not kept pace in practice. Covering both theory and practice, the book first discusses replacing a direct response (DR) with an RR in a simple random sample with replacement (SRSWR). It then emphasizes how the application of RRTs in the estimation of attribute or quantitative features is valid for selecting respondents in a general manner. The author examines different ways to treat maximum likelihood estimation; covers optional RR devices, which provide alternatives to compulsory randomized response theory; and presents RR techniques that encompass quantitative variables, including those related to stigmatizing characteristics. He also gives his viewpoint on alternative RR techniques, including the item count technique, nominative technique, and three-card method.

Table of Contents

Why We Need One More Monograph on Randomized Response

Warner’s Randomized Response Technique
Warner Model
Simple Random Sampling with Replacement
Chaudhuri and Pal’s Estimators
Chaudhuri, Bose, and Dihidar’s Estimators
Inverse SRSWR

Randomized Response Technique in General Sampling Design
Warner’s Model
Unrelated Question Model
Kuk’s RRT
Christofides’s RRT
Forced Response Scheme
Mangat and Singh’s RRT
Mangat’s Scheme
Mangat, Singh, and Singh’s Scheme
Singh and Joarder’s Scheme
Dalenius and Vitale’s Scheme
Takahasi and Sakasegawa’s Scheme Modified by Pal
Liu, Chow, and Mosley’s RRT

Maximum Likelihood Approach

Optional Randomized Response Technique

Protection of Privacy

Quantitative Characteristics
Review of Literature

Other Indirect Questioning Techniques
Item Count Technique
Nominative Technique
The Three-Cards Method

Miscellaneous Techniques, Applications, and Conclusions

Illustrative Simulated Empirical Findings
Warner’s RR versus Unrelated Question Model-Based RR in Unequal Probability Sampling as against Equal Probability Sampling
Simulated Illustration of a Numerical Study of "Protection of Privacy" in RR Surveys
Concluding Remarks



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Arijit Chaudhuri is a professor in the Applied Statistics Unit at the Indian Statistical Institute. Dr. Chaudhuri has published nearly 90 research papers in a variety of journals. He is the co-author of Survey Sampling: Theory and Methods, Second Edition (CRC Press, March 2005). His research interests include survey sampling and reliability.


The book compiles the important mathematical contributions in the area of RR … readers interested in a summary of the statistical advances on RR will certainly find this book to be a good resource. … It is a well-written and edited book and I congratulate the author for his work.
—Mariano Ruiz Espejo, Biometrics, December 2012