For many years liver surgery has been considered major surgery, which has been often associated with a high complication rate. Although evidence suggests that better results are achieved in specialized centers with a high volume of procedures, nevertheless liver resections are now carried out in most of the general surgery divisions. Beside the fact that I still believe that liver surgery should be a field of trained specialists, in editing this book I have attempted to cover for the general surgeon all the main topics of liver surgery and to review the very latest innovative developments. Eminent surgeons from different countries agreed to contribute their own views, opinions and results in the management of primary and secondary liver tumours. The book covers most of the topics which are essential elements in modern liver surgery: applied anatomy of the liver with its radiological demonstration, prognostic indicators and staging systems, portal vein embolization, vascular occlusion, intraoperative ultrasonic guided surgery, different transection techniques. I thought necessary to give space to the radiologists in an effort to outline the extraordinary advances of interventional radiology, which have taken place in recent years. Particular consideration has been given to the aspect of avoiding and managing complications. There are also new specific contributions such as partial hepatectomy after transplantation, genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocyte transplantation, and computer-assisted operations. Since the first report of a laparoscopic liver resection, hepatic resection using minimally invasive surgery has become increasingly more common; therefore emphasis has been given to this alternative approach. Recently introduced innovative contributions in liver transplantation are also described.