Redefining U.S. Education: A Systematic Approach to Teaching, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Redefining U.S. Education

A Systematic Approach to Teaching, 1st Edition

By William F. Roth, Ian M. Roth

CRC Press

296 pages

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pub: 2015-07-29
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Description

A growing number of educators are beginning to believe that as we move into a different kind of world with different possibilities, the traditional approach to teaching is no longer the most productive. They are beginning to understand that if we are to continue progressing as a nation, we need to place more emphasis on the development of each student’s unique potential. This book presents a new model for education that achieves this goal through the effective use of technology.

Redefining U.S. Education: A Systematic Approach to Teaching first looks at the evolution of the U.S. public education system, explaining how we got here and where we are in terms of our system’s strengths and weaknesses. The book explores the philosophical and theoretical roots of the U.S. system developed in Europe centuries ago. It introduces the major dilemma of whether emphasis should be on ensuring that all students reach a defined level of expertise or on encouraging individual students to develop their full potential.

In an effort to draw from the experiences of two other major societies, the book also looks at the education systems in Europe and Japan. It examines Europe’s Bologna Process, identifying its advantages and shortcomings as an attempt at standardization. It then travels to Japan, a country that represents the epitome in terms of standardization. It discusses the damage that this over-emphasis on standardization has done to Japanese society, and especially to the Japanese education system.

The authors then present an exciting new paradigm of teaching that incorporates computer technology into education. This new paradigm allows students to use computer programs to progress at their own rate in subjects they enjoy and excel at while, concurrently, ensuring that they still get the basics they need to function successfully in society. The book details the key logistics of the new paradigm, including the way classes are run, the way subjects are taught, and the way students are graded.

Table of Contents

Growth versus Development

A More Balanced Perspective?

Evolution of Society’s Shaping Ethic

Academia Is Slow to Catch on

The Historic Evolution of Education in Europe: A Brief Synopsis

Only for the Chosen

Theoretical Roots of Modern Education

Opposing Schools of Thought Begin a Never-Ending Battle

A Dilemma Faced by Educators

Rationalizations That Don’t Work

Good Intentions Lead to Naught

Education in the United States during the Colonial Period

Breaking with European Tradition

How Students Learned

Getting the Framework into Place

Others Who Helped Shape the Colonial Education System

Education in the United States during the Early 1800s

The Scattershot Approach

Educating the Poor

Horace Mann Makes the Common School System a Serious Player

Dealing with the Flood of Immigrants

Frederick Froebel Give Us Kindergarten

Education in the United States during the Late 1800s

A Broadening of Emphasis

The Education Sector Gets a Voice

Change Comes Slow

Influences during the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution Reshapes the U.S. Education System

Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management Spills Over into the Classroom

Opposition Arises to the Mechanistic Approach

Rationalizations for Educating Students to be Robots

The Battle between Mechanists and Humanists

Education in the United States during the Early 1900s

Psychologists Get Involved in Shaping Education Policy

Three Different Mindsets

Mechanistic Thinking Remains Dominant

Introducing the Concept of Tracts

Slowly But Surely, Efforts to Educate the Nation Progress

The Hierarchy in Place, Efforts Shift to Shaping Curriculum

Education in the United States to the Mid-1900s

Tumultuous Shifts in the Education System

The Problem of Measurement

A Bump in the Road to Progress

Teachers Unionize

The National Education Association Becomes a Force

A Battle for Survival

A Slow Recovery

Again, How to Deal with the Poor

Segregation, Deculturalization, Assimilation, a Sad Chapter in the History of U.S. Public Education

The Lingering Legacy of Slavery in the United States

Deculturalization and Assimilation as Alternatives

The Battle to Eliminate Segregation

Following the Lead of the Black Community

The New Kid on the Block

From Humble Beginnings

The Radio Takes Center Stage

And, Then, Television Hits the Scene

The Computer Makes a New Education Paradigm Possible

Education in the United States during the Mid- to Late 1900s

Still Trying to Figure Out the Best Approach

The Problem with Private Schools, the Bubble World

Increased Government Involvement and Funding

Academia’s Failings in Terms of the U.S.’s Ability to Compete Globally

The Students Get Involved

Those Who are Dissatisfied Strike Out on Their Own

Education in the United States during the Late 1900s

The Mechanistic Faction Refuses to Budge

The Modern-Day Problem with the Mechanistic Argument

The Human Relations School Types Continue Chipping Away

Government Efforts to Make School Systems Accountable

Developing State-Wide Achievement Standards and Work-Study Programs

Three Movements That Made a Difference

Education in the United States during the Early 2000s

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Ensuing Confusion

The Advent of the Student Aptitude Test

Why a Universal Test Taken by All Students Is Necessary

Grades Don’t Tell the Story

No Perfect Solution, But…

European Nations Provide Models the United States Can Learn from

Europe: Leading the Way or Behind?

Designing the Best Model

The Bologna Process’ Focus on Standardization

The Bologna Process and Program Design

The Bologna Process and Rewarding Student Accomplishment

Strata of Qualifications Frameworks

Shaping Curriculum through Tuning

Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Standardization

The Bologna Process and Transferability of Evaluation

The Bologna Process and the Social Dimension

To Join or Not to Join? That is the Question

Spread of the Bologna Process

Downsides of the Bologna Process

Research in European Universities

Tuition Free Education and Its Problems

How Private School Education in European Countries Is Financed

The Move toward Decentralization

Standardization as a Threat: The Japanese Experience

Japan’s Individuality Crisis

A History of "Honne" Bowing to "Tatemae"

The Perils of Importing Progress

The Samuraization of Workers and Students

A Lost Opportunity

Japan Goes to War in the Marketplace

Does Excessive Regimentation Support a Hidden Curriculum in the Classroom?

Competition Out of Control

Japan’s Inability to Modernize Its Education System

The Toll Taken By Excessive Standardization

Those Who Suffer the Most

More Disturbing Evidence

The Nation as a Whole Suffers

The Major Obstruction to Change

The Inability to Get beyond Dependency Theory and Its Consequences

Is Cultural Reform Possible?

Things That Need Further Improvement in the United States

Developing Standards for Academic Achievement at the Highest Level

Improving the Performance of Teachers as Well

Teachers as Students

Teacher Empowerment as the Biggest Challenge

Measurement That Makes Sense

Once Again, Standardization versus Reflective Thinking

Why neither Charter Schools nor Vouchers nor Private Schools Provide the Answer

Tracking, More Harm Than Good?

The Limitations of IQ Tests

The Impossible Becomes Possible

Historical Progress of the U.S. Education System

Still Seeking the Best Approach

Updating the Attitude of Teachers

The Current Challenge

Putting the Pieces in Place

Self-Management as the Key to Learning

Our Traditional Grading System Made Obsolete

Dealing with the Logistics of the New Paradigm

Meeting the Initial Challenge

Encouraging and Measuring Progress

Breaking Down Traditional Boundaries

Including University-Level Work in the Loop

Time to Move on toward New World Education

Bibliography

About the Authors

William F. Roth, MSW, PhD, is currently a professor at Kutztown University in Pennsylvania where he teaches courses in strategic planning, organization design, ethics, and management theory. Previously, he taught for 16 years at DeSales University, where he held the McCabe Endowed Chair for Business and Society. Dr. Roth earned his PhD at The Wharton School, his master’s in social work at the University of Pennsylvania, and his bachelor’s in economic geography at Dartmouth College. As a consultant, Dr. Roth has worked on design and regional planning projects in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mexico, and several locations in the United States. Previously, he spent 5 years with the poverty program and the civil rights movement in the Deep South.

Ian M. Roth, MS, graduated from Vassar College with his BA in philosophy. He then earned his MS in global and international education from Drexel University, where his dissertation addressed using learning technology to teach multiculturalism in Japanese primary schools. Ian has been living in Japan since college and has taught there at the primary, secondary, and university levels. He has published a number of articles in Japanese journals and has recently submitted several to U.S. journals. Currently, he is studying for his PhD in Organizational Systems at Saybrook University.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS079000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Government & Business
POL017000
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Affairs & Administration
POL028000
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / General