Cartels, trusts and agreements to reduce competition between firms have existed for centuries, but became particularly prevalent toward the end of the 19th century. In the mid-20th century governments began to use so called ‘cartel registers’ to monitor and regulate their behaviour. This book provides cases studies from more than a dozen countries to examine the emergence, application and eventual decline of this form of regulation.
Beginning with a comparison of the attitudes to regulation that led to monitoring, rather than prohibiting cartels, this book examines the international studies on cartels undertaken by the League of Nations before World War II. This is followed by a series of studies on the context of the registers, including the international context of the European Union, and the importance of lobby groups in shaping regulatory outcomes, using Finland as an example. Section two provides a broad international comparison of several countries’ registers, with individual studies on Norway, Australia, Japan, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands. After examining the impact of registration on business behaviour in the insurance industry, this book concludes with an overview of the lessons to be learnt from 20th century efforts to regulate competition.
With a foreword by Harm Schroter, this book outlines the rise and fall of a system that allowed nations to tailor their approach to regulating competition to their individual circumstances whilst also responding to the pressures of globalisation that emerged after the Second World War. This book is suitable for those who are interested in and study economic history, international economics and business history.
Table of Contents
Introduction Regulating Capitalism- Rise and Fall of ‘Cartel Registers’ in the 20th Century. Section 1 – Context of Cartel Registers Publish or be Damned? – Early Cartel Legislation in USA, Germany and Norway, 1890-1940 Legitimising Cartels. The Joint Roles of the League of Nations and of the International Chamber of Commerce. Competition Policy in the European Economic Community, 1957-1992. The Curse of Compulsory Registration? How the Tortoise became a Hare: On the Initial Sclerosis and Ultimate Modernisation of Dutch Competition Policy. Creating the 1957 Cartel Law: The Role of Pressure Groups on Finland’s Competition Policy and Cartel Registration. Section 2 Registers in Different Countries Cartel Registers around World. Transparency of Cartels and Cartel registers: A Regulatory Innovation from Norway? The Secret Register and its Impact in Advancing Competition in Australia, 1900-2010. Policy Transfer and its Limits: Authorised Cartels in 20th Century Japan. Cartel Law and the Cartel register in German 20th Century History. Cartel Registration in Sweden in the Post-War Period. The Dutch cartel collection in the 20th century: Facts and figures. Regulating Competition of Swedish Insurance Business. The Role of the Insurance Cartel Registry. Section 3 Conclusions
Susanna Fellman is Professor of Business History at the School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Martin Shanahan is Professor of Economic and Business History at the School of Business, University of South Australia.