This book intends to inform the key participants in extractive projects – namely, the communities, the host governments and the investors – about good practice for effective community engagement, based on analysis of international standards and expectations, lessons from selected case-studies and innovations in public participation.
The extent of extractive industries varies widely around the Arctic as do governmental and social attitudes towards resource development. Whilst most Arctic communities are united in seeking investment to fund education, healthcare, housing, transport and other essential services, as well as wanting to benefit from improved employment and business opportunities, they have different views as to the role that extractive industries should play in this. Within each community, there are multiple perspectives and the goal of public participation is to draw out these perspectives and seek consensus. Part I of the book analyses the international standards that have emerged in recent years regarding public participation, in particular, in respect of indigenous peoples. Part II presents six case studies that aim to identify both good and bad practices and to reflect upon the distinct conditions, needs, expectations, strategies and results for each community examined. Part III explores the importance of meaningful participation from a corporate perspective and identifies some common themes that require consideration if Arctic voices are to shape extractive industries in Arctic communities.
In drawing together international law and standards, case studies and examples of good practice, this anthology is a timely and invaluable resource for academics, legal advisors and those working in resource development and public policy.
Table of Abbreviations and acronyms
Chapter One- Introduction
Chapter Two- Indigenous rights and resource development in the Arctic: an overview of international standards and principles for consultation, participation and consent
Chapter Three- What is required for Free, Prior and Informed Consent and where does it apply?
Chapter Four- Meaningful stakeholder engagement as an aspect of risk-based due diligence between the economy, politics and law: the constitutive role of the Business & Human Rights regime
Chapter Five- Youth as a Resources in Extractive Industry Decision-Making Processes: a Case Study using Social Media and Visual Methods to Engage Young Greenlanders
Chapter Six- Comparative expectations of resource development in selected Greenland communities
Chapter Seven- „Our consent was taken for granted." A relational justice perspective on participation of Komi people in oil development in northern Russia
Chapter Eight- Local views on oil development in a village on the North Slope of Alaska
Chapter Nine- Land Claims Agreements in Canada and the promise of enhanced participation
Chapter Ten- Participation in a Small Archipelago: the Shetland negotiations
Chapter Eleven- The relationship between host government contracts for oil and gas activities and public participation
Chapter Twelve- Achieving Excellence in Public Participation and Consultation
Chapter Thirteen- Arctic Voices: Strategies for Community Engagement