1st Edition

Reimagining Society in 18th Century French Literature Happiness and Human Rights

By Jonas Ross Kjærgård Copyright 2018
    238 Pages
    by Routledge

    238 Pages
    by Routledge

    The French revolutionary shift from monarchical to popular sovereignty came clothed in a new political language, a significant part of which was a strange coupling of happiness and rights. In Old Regime ideology, Frenchmen were considered subjects who had no need of understanding why what was prescribed to them would be in the interest of their happiness. The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen equipped the French with a list of inalienable rights and if society would respect those rights, the happiness of all would materialize.

    This volume explores the authors of fictional literature who contributed alongside pamphleteers, politicians, and philosophers to the establishment of this new political arena, filled with sometimes vague, yet insisting notions of happiness and rights. The shift from monarchical to popular sovereignty and the corollary transition from subjects to citizens culminated in the summer of 1789 but it was preceded by an immense piece of imaginative work.

    Table of Contents

    List of Figures



    Happiness and the Politics of Words

    The Political Anthropology of Happiness and Rights


    Chapter I: The Unfinished Declaration

    Debating the Declaration

    Nature and Society

    Rights and Duties

    Enmity and Passive Citizenship


    Chapter II: What Was Literature?

    The Author-Politician and the Code of History

    Louis-Sébastien Mercier and the Re-Awakening of Patriotic Virtue

    Choderlos de Laclos’ Reinterpretation of Dulce et Utile

    Marie-Joseph Chénier and the Author-Legislator


    Chapter III: Louis-Sébastien Mercier and the Dream of a Happy Future

    Temporality in Mercier’s Utopian Thought

    The Form of Government in L’an 2440

    Taxation and the Duty of Patriotism


    Chapter IV: The Search for Order in Choderlos de Laclos’ Liaisons dangereuses

    Laclos and the Politics of Social Forms

    The Rhythm of Social Forms

    The Hierarchies of Social Forms


    Chapter V: The Regeneration of the State in Marie-Joseph Chénier’s Fénelon ou les religieuses de Cambrai

    Convent Life and Paternal Inflexibility

    The Problem of Humanness

    Political Agency : From Unhappiness to Happiness

    The Tableau Vivant: The Politics of the Happy Ending






    Jonas Ross Kjærgård, PhD, Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature at Aarhus University and recipient of the EliteResearch travel grant. He acquired his PhD degree at Aarhus University, Denmark, with a dissertation on French Revolutionary rights and literature. He has published articles and book chapters on literature and the French revolution and edited the volume Discursive Framings of Human Rights: Negotiating Agency and Victimhood (with Karen-Margrethe Simonsen), published by Birkbeck Law Press. He has begun a new research project on the literary history of the Haitian revolution.