Hardly a week goes by without some world event relating to the burgeoning field of religion and human rights. Whether attacks carried out in the name of religion by individuals or states, violations of the rights of individuals or communities due to their religious or other beliefs, or clashes between religious and other competing rights (most notably, freedom of speech), matters relating to religion and human rights are not only an area of expert and academic interest, but also of increasing interest to policy-makers, governments, international organizations, and NGOs.
This new four-volume Major Work collection from Routledge examines the background, history, and nature of human rights—both individual and collective—as well as economic, social, and cultural rights; and also civil and political rights. Standards, mechanisms, and jurisprudence at international and national levels are included, and form part of the discussion of the conflict of rights and freedom of religion or belief. Religions featured include Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and African religions, and the persecution or discrimination of religious or belief communities are discussed. Relevant human rights documents are also included.
The range of subject areas that contribute to discussions on religion and human rights are many, and include: political science; law; international relations; anthropology; philosophy; religious studies; sociology of religion; and theology. Students, scholars, teachers, and practitioners from these and other disciplines will welcome this collection as a vital one-stop compendium of the very best canonical and cutting-edge research.
Table of Contents
VOLUME I: WHY PROTECT FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF?
1. John Locke, ‘A Letter Concerning Toleration’.
2. Richard Ashcraft, ‘Religion and Lockean Natural Rights’, in I. Bloom, J. P. Martin, and W. L. Proudfoot (eds.), Religious Diversity and Human Rights (Columbia University Press, 1996), pp. 195–212.
3. David Little, Abdulaziz Sachedina, and John Kelsay, ‘Human Rights and the World’s Religions: Christianity, Islam, and Religious Liberty’, in I. Bloom, J. P. Martin, and W. L. Proudfoot (eds.), Religious Diversity and Human Rights (Columbia University Press, 1996), pp. 213–39.
4. Max L. Stackhouse and Stephen E. Healey, ‘Religion and Human Rights: A Theological Apologetic’, in J. D. van der Vyver, and J. Witte (eds.), Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, Religious Perspectives (Martinus Nijhoff, 1996), pp. 485–516.
5. Nazila Ghanea, ‘Faith in Human Rights, Human Rights in Faith’, in N. Ghanea (ed.), The Challenge of Religious Discrimination at the Dawn of the New Millennium (Martinus Nijhoff, 2003), pp. 107–32.
6. Richard Falk, ‘Cultural Foundations for the International Protection of Human Rights’, in A. A. An-Na’im (ed.), Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992), pp. 44–64.
7. Rhoda E. Howard, ‘Dignity, Community, and Human Rights’, in A. A. An-Na’im (ed.), Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992), pp. 81–102.
8. Michael McDonald, ‘Should Communities Have Rights? Reflections on Individual Liberalism’, in A. A. An-Na’im (ed.), Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992), pp. 133–61.
9. Timothy Macklem, ‘Faith as a Secular Value’, McGill Law Journal, 2000, 45, 1, 1–63.
10. Gidon Sapir and Daniel Stateman, ‘Why Freedom of Religion Does not Include Freedom From Religion’, Law and Philosophy, 2005, 24, 467–508.
11. Paul Alexander, ‘Toward Particular Declarations of Human Gifts: A Christian Reflection on Religions, Stories, and Untold Suffering’, Religion and Human Rights, 2008, 3, 3, 235–47.
12. Paul Weller, ‘"Human Rights", Religion and the Secular: Variant Configurations of Religion(s), State(s) and Society(ies)’, Religion and Human Rights, 2006, 1, 1, 17–39.
VOLUME II: IS FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF AN INDIVIDUAL OR COLLECTIVE HUMAN RIGHT?
Group, Collective, and Corporate Rights
13. Peter Jones, ‘Human Rights, Group Rights, and Peoples’ Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1999, 21, 80–107.
14. Will Kymlicka, ‘Toleration and its Limits’, Multicultural Citizenship (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 152–72.
15. Vernon Van Dyke, ‘Human Rights and the Rights of Groups’, American Journal of Political Science, 1974, 18, 4, 725–41.
16. Jeremy Waldron, ‘Minority Cultures and the Cosmopolitan Alternative’, in W. Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of Minority Cultures (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 93–119.
17. Leslie Green, ‘Internal Minorities and their Rights’, in W. Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of Minority Cultures (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 257–72.
18. Geoff Gilbert, ‘Individuals, Collectivities and Rights’, in N. Ghanea and A. Xanthaki (eds.), Minorities, Peoples and Self-Determination (Martinus Nijhoff, 2005), pp. 139–61.
Models for Protection of Religion or Belief
19. Dinah Shelton and Alexandre Kiss, ‘A Draft Model Law on Freedom of Religion, With Commentary’, in J. D. van der Vyver and J. Witte (eds.), Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, Legal Perspectives (Martinus Nijhoff, 1996), pp. 559–92.
20. Martha Nussbaum, ‘Liberty of Conscience: The Attack on Equal Respect’, Journal of Human Development, 2007, 8, 3, . 337–57.
21. Rex Adhar and Ian Leigh, ‘Religious Freedom in the Liberal State’, Religious Freedom in the Liberal State (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 67–97.
22. Nazila Ghanea, ‘Religious or Minority? Examining the Realisation of International Standards in Relation to Religious Minorities in the Middle East’, Religion, State and Society, 2008, 36, 3, 303–25.
23. Johannes A. van der Ven, ‘Religious Rights for Minorities in a Policy of Recognition’, Religion and Human Rights, 2008, 3, 2, 155–83.
24. Abdullahi A. An-Nai’m, ‘Religious Minorities Under Islamic Law and the Limits of Cultural Relativism’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1987, 9, 1, 1–18.
25. Karen Musalo, ‘Claims for Protection Based on Religion or Belief’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 2004, 16, 2, 165–226.
26. Arthur C. Helton and Jochen Munker, ‘Religion and Persecution: Should the United States Provide Refuge to German Scientologists?’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 1999, 11, 2, 310–28.
27. Eric T. Johnson, ‘Religious Persecution: A Viable Basis for Seeking Refugee Status in the United States?’, Brigham Young University Law Review, 1996, 757–86.
VOLUME III: CONFLICT OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF
General: On Conflict of Rights with Freedom of Religion or Belief
28. Peter G. Danchin, ‘Of Prophets and Proselytes: Freedom of Religion and the Conflict of Rights in International Law’, Harvard International Law Journal, 2008, 49, 2, 249–321.
29. Julian Rivers, ‘Law, Religion and Gender Equality’, The Ecclesiastical Law Society, 2007, 9, 24–52.
Freedom of Expression
30. Richard Mullender, ‘Hegel, Human Rights and Particularism’, Journal of Law and Society, 2003, 30, 4, 554–74.
31. Natan Lerner, 'Freedom of Expression and Advocacy of Group Hatred that Constitutes Incitement to Hate Crimes and Religious Hatred', Conference room paper No. 6, Expert Seminar on the Links between Articles 19 and 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Geneva 2-3 October 2008.
32. Patrick Thornberry, ‘Forms of Hate Speech and the Convention of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)’, Conference room paper No. 9, Expert Seminar on the Links between Articles 19 and 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Geneva 2-3 October 2008.
33. Ayelet Shachar, ‘Group Identity and Women’s Rights in Family Law: The Perils of Multicultural Accommodation’, The Journal of Political Philosophy, 1998, 6, 3, 285–305.
34. Jeff Spinner-Halev, ‘Feminism, Multiculturalism, Oppression, and the State’, Ethics, 2001, 112, 84–113.
35. S. Okin, ‘Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women’, in Joshua Cohen, Matthew Howard, and Martha C. Nussbaum (eds.), Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women (Princeton University Press, 1999), pp. 7–26.
36. Leti Volpp, ‘Feminism versus Multiculturalism’, Columbia Law Review, 2001, 101, 5, 1181–218.
37. Li-ann Thio, ‘Judges and Religious Questions: Adjudicating Claims to Wear Religious Dress in Public Schools’, Religion and Human Rights, 2007, 2, 3, 119–48.
38. T. H. McLaughlin, ‘Parental Rights and the Religious Upbringing of Children’, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 1984, 18, 1, 75–83.
39. Sylvie Langlaude, The Right of the Child to Religious Freedom in International Law (Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), pp. 245–55.
VOLUME IV: INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS, PERSECUTION AND WAYS FORWARD
International Standards and Mechanisms Regarding Freedom of Religion or Belief
40. Arcot Krishnaswami, ‘Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices’, UN Document (1960).
41. Brice Dickson, ‘The United Nations and Freedom of Religion’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 1995, 44, 2, 327–57.
42. T. Jeremy Gunn, ‘The Complexity of Religion and the Definition of "Religion" in International Law’, Harvard Human Rights Law Journal, 2003, 16, 189–215.
43. Donna J. Sullivan, ‘Advancing the Freedom of Religion or Belief Through the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Religious Intolerance and Discrimination’, American Journal of International Law, 1988, 82, 3, 487–520.
44. Michael Wiener, ‘The Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief: Institutional, Procedural and Substantive Legal Issues’, Religion and Human Rights, 2007, 2, 1, 3–17.
Persecution and Discrimination
45. John Gardner, ‘Discrimination as Injustice’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 1996, 16, 3, 353–67.
46. Nazila Ghanea, ‘Apostasy and Freedom to Change Religion or Belief’, in T. Lindholm, W. Cole Durham, and B. G. Tahzib-Lie (eds.), Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook (Martinus Nijhoff, 2004), pp. 669–88.
47. David Keane, ‘Why the Hindu Caste System Presents a New Challenge for Human Rights’, in J. Rehman and S. C. Breau (eds.), Religion, Human Rights and International Law (Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), pp. 281–317.
48. Mario Apostolov, ‘Terms of Analysis and Problems of Definition’, Religious Minorities, Nation States and Security: Five Cases from the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 9–26.
49. Jeff Haynes, ‘Religion, Secularisation and Politics: A Postmodern Conspectus’, Third World Quarterly, 1997, 18, 4, 709–28.
50. Mohamed S. M. Eltayeb, ‘A Human Rights Framework for Defining and Understanding Intra-Religious Persecution in Muslim Countries’, in N. Ghanea (ed.), The Challenge of Religious Discrimination at the Dawn of the New Millennium (Martinus Nijhoff, 2003), pp. 83–105.
51. Mashood A. Baderin, ‘Conclusion’, International Human Rights and Islamic Law (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 219–35.
Equality, Differential Treatment, Special Rights, Positive Duties, and Freedom of Religion or Belief
52. Dennis de Jong, ‘The Legal Obligations of State and Non-State Actors in Respect of the Protection of Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion or Belief’, Religion and Human Rights, 2008, 3, 1, 1–13.
53. Madhavi Sunder, ‘Piercing the Veil’, Yale Law Journal, 2003, 112, 1399–472.
54. Khaled Abou El Fadl, ‘The Death Penalty, Mercy and Islam: A Call for Retrospection’, in Erik C. Owens, John D. Carlson, and Eric P. Elshtain (eds.), A Call for Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2004), pp. 73–105.
55. Theo van Boven, ‘Advances and Obstacles in Building Understanding and Respect between People of Diverse Religions and Beliefs’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1991, 13, 4, 437–49.
'Overall the materials here are an outstanding collection addressing all of the main issues in the relationship between religion and human rights. I sincerely believe that it would be difficult for anyone to put together a better, more useable collection; their careful and considered selection is a considerable achievement.'
- Urfan Khaliq, Cardiff Law School, Cardiff University, UK