1st Edition

Religion and the Internet

Edited By Heidi Campbell
    1118 Pages 96 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Religion and the Internet will present a range of scholarly articles that offer a critical overview of the interdisciplinary study of new media, religion and digital culture. Scholars have documented individuals using computer networks for religious discussions and enagagment since the early 1980s. In the mid 1990s, when the Internet became publicly accessible, scholars began to study how users were translating and transporting their religious practices onto this new digital platform. This collection will cover the development of the study of Religion and the Internet over the past three decades, highlighting the core research topics, approaches and questions that have been explored by key international scholars at the intersection of new media and religion. The collection seeks to present how new forms of religious practices have emerged and been interrogated by scholars. It will also present how religious communities have negotiated their engagement with digital techologies and the online and offline implications this has had for religious practioners and individuals.

    Routledge Religion and the Internet

    Volume I: Mapping the Rise of the Study of Religious Practice Online

    1. S. O’Leary, ‘Cyberspace as sacred space: Communicating religion on computer networks’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1996, vol. 64(4), 781–808.
    2. R. Schroeder, N. Heather, and R. M. Lee, ‘The sacred and the virtual: religion in multi-user virtual reality’, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 1998, vol. 4(2), 1-15. Online. <http://www.socialinformation.org/readings/MMORPG/The%20Sacred%20in%20the%20Virtual%20World.pdf>
    3. J. Anderson, ‘The internet and Islam’s new interpreters’, in Eickleman (ed.), New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, pp. 41-55.
    4. Dawson, L. and J. Hennerby, ‘New religions and the internet: Recruiting in a new public space’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 1999, vol. 14(1), 17-39.
    5. G. G. Armfield and R. L. Holbert, ‘The relationship between religiosity and internet use’, Journal of Media and Religion, 2003, vol. 3(2), 129-144.
    6. H. Campbell, ‘Challenges created by online religious networks’, Journal of Media and Religion, 2004, vol. 3(2), 81-99.
    7. O. Krueger, ‘The internet as a mirror and distributor of religious and ritual knowledge’, Asian Journal of Social Sciences, 2004, vol. 32(2), 183-197.
    8. H. Campbell, ‘Making space for religion in Internet studies’, The Information Society: An International Journal, 2005, vol. 4, 309–315.
    9. K. Barzilai-Nahon and G. Barzilai, ‘Cultured technology: internet and religious fundamentalism’, The Information Society, 2005, vol. 21(1), 25–40.
    10. M. MacWilliams, ‘Techno-ritualization: the gohozon controversy on the internet’, in Raddle-Antweiler (ed.), Online-Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2006, vol. 2(1), 91-122. online, available at HTTP: <http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/371/347>.
    11. P. H. Cheong, A. Halavis and K. H. Kwon, ‘The chronicles of me: Understanding blogging as a religious practice’, Journal of Media and Religion, 2008, vol. 7, 107-131.
    12. .

    13. K. Radde-Antweiler, ‘Virtual religion: An approach to a religious and ritual topography of Second Life’, Online-Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2008, vol. 3(1), 174-211. online, available HTTP: <http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/393/368>.
    14. M. Lövheim, ‘Rethinking cyberreligion? Teens, religion and the Internet in Sweden’, Nordicom Review, 2008, vol. 29(2), 205-217.
    15. S. Mihelj, L. van Zoonen and F. Vis, ‘Cosmopolitan communication online: YouTube responses to the anti-Islam film Fitna’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 64(4), 613-632.
    16. A. Aguilar, H. A. Campbell, M. Stanley and F. E. Taylor, ‘Communicating mixed messages about religion through Internet memes’, Information, Communication & Society, forthcoming 2017.
    17. Volume II: Key Themes in the Study of Digital Religion

      Part 1- Studying Religious Community

    18. H. Campbell, ‘Internet and religion’, in Ess and Consalvo (eds.), Handbook on Internet studies, Oxford: Blackwell, 2011, pp. 236-250.
    19. C. Helland ‘Diaspora on the electronic frontier: Developing virtual connections with sacred homelands’, Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, , 2007, vol. 12(3), 956-976.
    20. P. Cheong and J. Poon, ‘Weaving webs of faith: Examining Internet use and religious communication among Chinese Protestant transmigrants’, Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 2009, vol. 2(3), 189-207.
    21. T. Hutchings ‘Contemporary religious community and the online church’, Information, Communication and Society, , 2011, vol. 14(18), 1118-1135.
    22. I. Noomen, S. Aupers and D. Houtman, ‘Catholic, Protestant and holistic spiritual appropriations of the Internet’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 14(8), 1097-1117.
    23. H. Campbell, ‘How religious communities negotiate new media religiously’, in Cheong, Fisher-Nielsen, Gelfren and Ess (eds.), Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture. Perspectives, Practices and Futures, New York: Peter Lang, 2012, pp..81-96.

      Part 2- Studying Religious Identity

    25. M. Lövheim, ‘Young people and the use of the Internet as transitional space’, Online: Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2005, vol. 1(1), 1-22. Online. Available HTTP: < http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/383/358>.
    26. V. Šisler, ‘Cyber counsellors: Online fatwas, arbitration tribunals and the construction of Muslim identity in the UK’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 14(8), 1136-1159.
    27. M. Lövheim, ‘Young women’s blogs as ethical spaces’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 14(3), 338-354.
    28. R. N. B. Shahar and A. Lev-On ‘Gender, religion and new media: Attitudes and behaviors related to the internet among Ultra-Orthodox women employed in computerized environments’, International Journal of Communication, 2011, vol. 5(1), 875–895.
    29. D. Whitehead, ‘"The Story God Is Weaving Us Into": Narrativizing grief, faith, and infant loss in US Evangelical women’s blog communities’, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 2014, vol. 21(1-2), 42-56.
    30. C. Helland, ‘Virtual Tibet: Maintaining identity through Internet networks’, in Grieve and Veidlinger (eds.),The Pixel in the Lotus: Buddhism, the Internet, and Digital Media, Routledge: New York, 2014,  pp. 213-241.

      Part 3- Studying Religious Authority

    32. B. S. Turner, ‘Religious authority and the new media’, Theory, Culture and Society, 2007, vol. 24(2), 117-134.
    33. H. Campbell, ‘Who’s got the power? Religious authority and the Internet’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007, vol. 12(3), 1043-1062.
    34. H. Campbell, ‘Bloggers and religious authority online’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2010, vol. 15(2), 251-276.
    35. P. H. Cheong, S. Huang and J. P. Poon, ‘Religious communication and epistemic authority of leaders in wired faith organizations’, Journal of Communication, 2011, vol. 61(5), 938-958.
    36. E. Baffelli, ‘Charismatic blogger? Authority and new religions on the web 2.0’, in Baffelli, Reader and Staemmler (eds.), Japanese Religions on the Internet: Innovation, Representation, and Authority, London & New York: Routledge, 2011, pp.118-135.
    37. P. H. Cheong, ‘Tweet the message? Religious authority and social media innovation’, Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture, 2014, vol. 3(3), 1-19.
    38. Volume III: Research Methods and Theories in Digital Religion Studies

      Part 1-Theoretical Approaches within Digital Religion

    39. C. Helland, ‘Online-religion/religion-online and virtual communitas’, in Hadden and Cowan (eds), Religion on the Internet: Research Prospects and Promises, New York: JAI Press, 2000, pp. 205-233.
    40. H. Campbell, ‘Understanding the relationship between religious practice online and offline in a networked society’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 2011, vol. 80(1), 64-93.
    41. L. S. Clark, ‘Considering religion and mediatization through a case study of J+K’s big day (The J K wedding entrance dance): A response to Stig Hjarvard’, Culture and Religion, 2011, vol. 12(2), 167-184.
    42. K. Lundby, ‘Patterns of belonging in online/offline interfaces of religion’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 14(8), 1219-1235.
    43. K. Lundby, ‘Theoretical framework for approaching religion and new media’, in Campbell (ed.), Digital Religion. Understanding Religious Practice in a New Media World, New York: Routledge, 2013, pp.225-237.
    44. S. Hoover and N. Echchaibli, ‘The "third spaces" of digital religion’, discussion paper published by The Center for Media, Religion, and Culture, 2014, 1-35 online, available HTTP: <https://thirdspacesblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/third-spaces-and-media-theory-essay-2-0.pdf>.
    45. S. Hoover, Evolving religion in the digital media’, in Knut (ed.) Religion Across Media. From Early Antiquity to Late Modernity, New York: Peter Lang, 2013, pp. 169-184.
    46. O. Golan and H. Campbell, ‘Strategic management of religious websites: The case of Israel’s Orthodox communities’, Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 2015, vol. 20(4), 467-486.
    47. H. A. Campbell, G. P. Grieve, R. Gregory, S. Lufts, R. Wagner and X. Zeiler, ‘Gaming religionworlds: Why religious studies should pay attention to religion in gaming’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 2016, 84 (3): 641-664.
    48. H. Campbell ‘Theoretical approaches within digital Religion studies’, New Media and Society, forthcoming 2017.

      Part 2-Methodological Approaches within Digital Religion

    50. H. Campbell, ‘Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated communication studies’, New Media and Society, 2005, vol. 7(1), 111-35.
    51. C. Helland, ‘Online religion as lived religion. Methodological issues in the study of religious participation on the internet’, Online-Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2005, vol. 1(1), 1-16. online, available HTTP: <http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/380/355>.
    52. O. Kruger, ‘Discovering the invisible Internet: Methodological aspects of searching religion on the Internet’, Online: Heidelberg Journal of Religion on the Internet, 2005, vol. 1(1), 1-27. online, available HTTP: <http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/385/360>.
    53. G. Grieve ‘Virtually embodying the field: Silent online meditation, immersion, and the Cardean ethnographic method’, Online: Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 2010, vol. 4(1) 35-62. online, available HTTP: <http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/religions/article/view/9384/3262>.
    54. P. H. Cheong, S. H. Huang and J. P. H. Poon ‘Cultivating online and offline pathways to enlightenment: Religious authority in wired Buddhist organizations’, Information, Communication & Society, 2011, vol. 14(18),1160-1180.
    55. M. Johns ‘Ethical issues in the study of religion and new media’, in Campbell (ed.) Digital Religion. Understanding Religious Practice in a New Media World, New York: Routledge, 2013, pp. 238-250.
    56. H. A. Campbell, B. Altenhofen, W. Bellar and K. J. Cho, ‘There’s a religious app for that!: A framework for studying religious mobile applications’, Mobile Media & Communication, 2014, vol. 2(2),154-172.
    57. G. Grieve, ‘The middle way method: A Buddhist informed ethnography of the virtual world of Second Life’, in Grieve and Veidlinger (eds.) Buddhism, the Internet and Digital Media: The Pixel in the Lotus, London: Routledge, 2014, pp. 23-39.
    58. V. Šisler, ‘Procedural religion: Methodological reflections on studying religion in video games’, New Media and Society, forthcoming 2017.
    59. W. Bellar, ‘Private practice: Using digital diaries and interviews to understand evangelical Christians’ choice and use of religious mobile applications’, New Media and Society, forthcoming 2017.


    Heidi A. Campbell is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication, Texas A&M University.