The importance of medical history in the annals of surgery has been frequently underemphasized. There is so much we can learn from the deeds and examples of our predecessors. There is so much we can admire in their lives and contributions. There is so much we can use to guide our professional development. This book introduces writings on the history and philosophy of surgery that previously appeared in the Journal of Investigative Surgery. These writings were selected and organized after careful analysis to include those works that demonstrated the best cohesive unit in telling about the evolution of surgery and its masters. When necessary we made corrections and added references as appeared to be required. Our principal objective is to reach the minds and hearts of all students of surgery. This encompasses medical students interested in surgery, surgical residents learning the discipline, faculty surgeons teaching young generations of future specialists, and the practicing surgeons who are making a difference in the community. Additionally, and as importantly, this book attempts to reach students of history in general and those interested in the history and philosophy of surgery in particular. Our lofty wish is for this book to reach the halls of academia as well as the surgical floors of general hospitals where students, residents, and staff surgeons attend their pre and postoperative patients. Our ultimate desire is that this work will appear during grand rounds and will be a constant companion in the pockets of surgical residents. We further hope that faculty members will frequently test those residents on the extraordinary value of the history of surgery and the wonderful ascent of this prestigious field of medicine. We hope these writings will present those who read them with encouraging and realistic views of the incredible feats realized by the pioneers of surgery. We welcome new ideas and suggestions the reader might have in improving future editions of this study on the history of surgery.