Glaciers and ice sheets have been melting significantly during recent decades, posing environmental threats at local, regional and global scales. Changes in glaciers are one of the clearest indicators of alterations in regional climate, since they are governed by changes in accumulation (from snowfall) and ablation (by melting of ice). Glacier changes have been measured for the last century by traditional field measurements, resulting in long time series for a few glaciers. Remote sensing data and methods, and geographic information systems, provide the means to allow glacier changes to be monitored at a global scale, to be analysed rapidly and to store the results and present information to both scientific and popular audiences in a way which was not possible before the digital revolution. Remote sensing of glaciers began with terrestrial and aerial photography during the middle of the 20th century, but today the discipline embraces a large variety of data types from laser scanner data to very high resolution satellite imagery, which can be applied to the mapping of glacier changes in terms of area, surface zonation or thickness. This book highlights the history of the remote sensing of glaciers, the physics of glaciers and remote sensing of them, and focuses particularly on modern data and methods used by remote sensing specialists and glaciologists. The book presents examples of glacier research carried out, for example in the Alps, Norway, Iceland, Caucasus, Patagonia, Rocky Mountains, Pakistan, Antarctica, New Zealand, and Svalbard.
This book is of interest to specialists and students working in the field of remote sensing, glaciology, physical geography, geology and climate change.
"Bringing together experts in remote sensing, glaciology, meteorology and geography, this book provides an overview of remote sensing data acquisition and processing methods for investigating glacier change. …What makes the book a valuable resource to students and practitioners in natural sciences, especially in glaciology and remote sensing, is that in addition to reviewing the different remote sensing methods it provides background in glaciology as well as in the physics of glacial remote sensing."
––Antarctic Science, 25, 2013
Foreword, Julian Dowdeswell
Acknowledgments, Petri K.E. Pellikka
Preface, Petri K.E. Pellikka
Principles of remote sensing, W. Gareth Rees, Petri K.E. Pellikka
The formation and dynamics of glaciers, Michael Kuhn
Glacier parameters monitored by remote sensing, Petri K.E. Pellikka, W.Gareth Rees
The early history of remote sensing of glaciers, Christoph Mayer
Physics of glacier remote sensing, Matti Leppäranta & Hardy B. Granberg
Terrestrial photogrammetry in glacier studies, Kari Kajuutti, Tuija Pitkänen, Henrik Haggrén, Petri K.E. Pellikka
Aerial photogrammetry in glacier studies, Andreas Kääb
Optical remote sensing of glacier extent, Frank Paul & Johan Hendriks
SAR imaging of glaciers, Kjell Arild Høgda, Rune Storvold & Tom Rune Lauknes
Airborne laser scanning in laser studies, Thomas Geist & Johann Stötter
Ground penetrating radar, Francisco Navarro & Olaf Eisen
Detection and visualization of glacier area changes, Frank Paul & Johan Hendriks
Detection of distortions in digital elevation models: simultaneous data acquisition at Hintereisferner glacier, Olli Jokinen
Accuracy aspects in topographical change detection of glacier surface, Olli Jokinen & Thomas Geist
The role of remote sensing in World-wide glacier monitoring, Andreas Kääb
Conclusions, W. Gareth Rees