Reproduction and Development in Mollusca: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Reproduction and Development in Mollusca

1st Edition

By T. J. Pandian

CRC Press

320 pages | 5 Color Illus. | 65 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781138710450
pub: 2017-08-04
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pub: 2018-09-07
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This book is perhaps the first attempt to comprehensively project the uniqueness of molluscs, covering almost all aspects of reproduction and development from aplacophorans to vampyromorphic cephalopods. Molluscs are unique for the presence of protective external shell, defensive inking, geographic distribution from the depth of 9,050 m to an altitude of 4,300 m, gamete diversity, the use of nurse eggs and embryos to accelerate the first few mitotic divisions in embryos, the natural occurrence of androgenics in a couple of bivalves, viable induced tetraploids, gigantism induced by elevated ploidy, the complementary role played by mitochondrial genome in sex determination by nuclear genes and the uptake and accumulation of steroid hormone from surrounding waters. In molluscs, sexuality comprises of gonochorism (< 75 %) and hermaphroditism, which itself includes simultaneous (> 24%), protandry (< 1 %), Marian and serial. In them, the presence of shell affords iteroparity and relatively longer life span in prosobranchs and bivalves but its absence semelparity and short life span in opisthobranchs and cephalopods. Within semelparity, gonochorism facilitates faster growth and larger body size but hermaphroditism small body size. In them, sex is irrevocably determined at fertilization by a few unknown genes and is not amenable to any environmental influence. However, the sex determining mechanism is more a family trait in bivalves. Primary sex differentiation is also fixed and not amenable to environmental factor but secondary differentiation is labile, protracted and amenable to environmental factors. Both sex differentiation and reproductive cycle are accomplished and controlled solely by neurohormones. In these processes, the role of steroid hormones may be alien to molluscs.


"The author provides a thorough scholarly apparatus, including an exhaustive reference list along with separate author, species, and subject indices. The figures are clean, and the hundreds of tables are useful synopses of the material being discussed. Most references are from 1990 to 2010. Having them in one volume will be valuable to graduate students or faculty who use the work as a reference book."

--L. T. Spencer, emeritus, Plymouth State University, CHOICE August 2018

Table of Contents


Molluscan Science

Taxonomy and Distribution

Thermal Vents and Cold Seeps

Energy Budgets

Life Span and Generation Time

Spermatogenesis and Fertilization

Ontogenetic Development

Locomotion and Dispersal

Molluscan Fisheries

Shell and Reproduction

Structure and Diversity

Latitudes, Predators and Parasites

Shell and Resource Allocation

Symmetry and Sinistrals

Chemical Defense

Sexual Reproduction

Reproductive Systems




Mates and Mating Systems

Alternative Mating System (AMS)

Multiple Paternity

Encapsulation and Nurse Eggs

Poecilogony and Dispersal Dimorphism

Brood Protection and Viviparity


Regeneration and Asexual Reproduction


Clio pyrimidata


Seasonal Aestivation

Tidal Aestivation

‘Biological Weapon’

Sex Determination

Inheritance of Color and Symmetry

Karyotypes and Heterogametism

Spawning Induction and Cryopreservation

Ploidy Induction and Gigantism

Mitochondrial Genome

Sex Determination Models

Sex Differentiation


Steroid Hormones

Endocrines Disruption

Parasitic Disruption

Ocean Acidification

Chemistry of Seawater

Pelagic Molluscs

Benthic Molluscs

Persistent Carry-over Effects

Effects on Prey-Predators

Uniqueness of Molluscs

Shell and Iteroparity

Gamete Diversity

Gigantism and Polyploidy

Sexuality and Paternity

Double Uniparental Inheritance (DUI)

Vertebrate Type Steroids

Aestivation vs Cysts


About the Author

T.J. Pandian: Visiting Professor, CAS Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India.

About the Series

Reproduction and Development in Aquatic Invertebrates

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Animals / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Developmental Biology