1st Edition

Residential Architecture as Infrastructure Open Building in Practice

Edited By Stephen H. Kendall Copyright 2022
    408 Pages 210 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    408 Pages 210 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

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    This edited collection provides an up-to-date account, by a group of well-informed and globally positioned authors, of recently implemented projects, public policies and business activities in Open Building around the world.

    Countless residential Open Building projects have been built in a number of countries, some without knowledge of the original theory and methods. These projects differ in architectural style, building industry methods, economic system and social aims. National building standards and guidelines have been promulgated in several countries (Finland, China, Japan, Korea), providing incentives and guidance to Open Building implementation. Businesses in several countries have begun to deliver advanced FIT-OUT systems both for new construction and for retrofitting existing buildings, demonstrating the economic advantages of ‘the responsive, independent dwelling.’ This book also argues that the ‘open building’ approach is essential for the reactivation of the existing building stock for long-term value, because in the end it costs less.

    The book discusses these developments in residential architecture from the perspective of an infrastructure model of built environment. This model enables decision-makers to manage risk and uncertainty, while avoiding a number of problems often associated with large, fast-moving projects, such as separation and distribution of design tasks (and responsibility) and the ensuing boundary frictions.

    Residential Architecture as Infrastructure adds to the Routledge Open Building Series, and will appeal to architects, urban designers, researchers and policy-makers interested in this international review of current projects, policies and business activities focused on Open Building implementation.


                 (Stephen Kendall)




    Chapter 1: Basic Principles of an Infrastructure Model of the Building Stock

                 (Stephen Kendall)


    Chapter 2: Open Building’s recent developments in the Netherlands

                 (Caroline Kruit)


    Chapter 3: Open Building in Finland

                 (Carolin Franke)


    Chapter 4: Quality Control by Levels – Steering the Design Process using BEA’s Project Book

                 (Jia Beisi)


    Chapter 5: Open Building in Russia

                 (Nadezhda Koreneva)


    Chapter 6: Open Building in the Global South

                 (Amira Osman)




    Chapter 7: The Future of Open Building resides in the Existing Stock

                 (Frank Bijdendijk)


    Chapter 8: Japan’s Act Concerning the Promotion of Long-Life Quality Housing

                 (Kazunobu Minami)


    Chapter 9: China’s 100-year housing law: It past and future

                 (Liu Dongwei and Wu Zhichao)


    Chapter 10: Korea’s 100-year housing program

                 (Soo-am Kim and Hyeonjeong Yang)




    Chapter 11: Infill Systems: A New Industry

                 (John Habraken)


    Chapter 12: How housing renovation is meeting the challenge of oversupply of dwelling units in Japan

                 (Yoshiro Morita and Yongsun Kim)


    Chapter 13: Dualities of Interior Decoration Companies in China

                 (Li ShanShan)


    Chapter 14: Developments Toward A RESIDENTIAL FIT-OUT Industry: The Key to a Sustainable Housing Stock

                 (Stephen Kendall)


    Postscript: A Personal Note

                 (Stephen Kendall)


    Glossary of Open Building Terms




    Stephen H. Kendall, Ph.D., R.A. is Emeritus Professor of Architecture at Ball State University and co-founder and vice president of the Council on Open Building. Dr. Kendall’s career in architectural practice, research and education spans more than 40 years. His research focuses on the Open Building approach needed to make buildings more adaptable, easier to customize to meet changing preferences and thus more sustainable. His work recognizes the increasing size and complexity of projects and the dynamics of living environments, the workplace and the marketplace where design must go beyond short-term uses and where control is distributed not only during initial planning but also over time.

    "The book gives a comprehensive and up-dated international overview of the current state of affairs in Open Building. This is very useful for professionals interested in the subject. The angle of attack (open building) is unusual on many important topics. And that makes it even more interesting for professionals, especially architects, that are not familiar with this philosophy. At the same time, it also makes it clear how difficult it is to change our ingrained habits that we love so much. Indeed, we are still too much connected with short term thinking that forms the basis for the conventional approach and functionalism in architecture. The book offers important theories that go far beyond the usual literature on architecture that only deals with projects and practical decisions."

    Frank Bijdendijk, Former Managing Director of the Housing Association Het Oosten (later Stadgenoot) in Amsterdam. Founder and President, National Renovation Platform in the Netherlands.