Resistance Welding : Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Resistance Welding
Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition

ISBN 9781138075245
Published March 31, 2017 by CRC Press
456 Pages 372 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Drawing on state-of-the-art research results, Resistance Welding: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition systematically presents fundamental aspects of important processes in resistance welding and discusses their implications on real-world welding applications. This updated edition describes progress made in resistance welding research and practice since the publication of the first edition.

New to the Second Edition:

  • Significant addition of the metallurgical aspects of materials involved in resistance welding, such as steels, aluminum and magnesium alloys, zinc, and copper
  • Electric current waveforms commonly used in resistance welding, including single-phase AC, single-phase DC, three-phase DC, and MFDC
  • Magnesium welding in terms of cracking and expulsion
  • The effect of individual welding parameters
  • 2-D and 3-D lobe diagrams
  • New materials for the ultrasonic evaluation of welds, including A-scan, B-scan, and in-line A-scan

The book begins with chapters on the metallurgical processes in resistance spot welding, the basics of welding schedule selection, and cracking in the nugget and heat-affected zone of alloys. The next several chapters discuss commonly conducted mechanical tests, the monitoring and control of a welding process, and the destructive and nondestructive evaluation of weld quality. The authors then analyze the mechanisms of expulsion—a process largely responsible for defect formation and other unwanted features—and explore an often overlooked topic in resistance welding-related research: the influence of mechanical aspects of welding machines. The final chapters explain how to numerically simulate a resistance welding process and apply statistical design and analysis approaches to welding research.

To obtain a broad understanding of this area, readers previously had to scour large quantities of research on resistance welding and essential related subjects, such as statistical analysis. This book collects the necessary information in one source for students, researchers, and practitioners in the sheet metal industry. It thoroughly reviews state-of-the-art results in resistance welding research and gives you a solid foundation for solving practical problems in a scientific and systematic manner.

Table of Contents

Welding Metallurgy
Solidification in Resistance Spot Welding
Metallurgical Characteristics of Metals
Embrittlement of Weldment

Electrothermal Processes of Welding
Electrical Characteristics of Resistance Welding
Thermal Characteristics of Resistance Welding
Electrode Life
Heat Balance
Electric Current Waveform

Weld Discontinuities
Classification of Discontinuities
Void Formation in Weld Nuggets
Cracking in Welding AA6111 Alloys
Cracking in Welding AA5754 Alloys

Mechanical Testing
Shop Floor Practices
Instrumented Tests

Resistance Welding Process Monitoring and Control
Data Acquisition
Process Monitoring
Process Control

Weld Quality and Inspection
Weld Quality
Destructive Evaluation
Nondestructive Evaluation

Expulsion in Resistance Spot Welding
Influence of Expulsion on Spot Weld Quality
Expulsion Process and Detection
Expulsion Prediction and Prevention

Influence of Mechanical Characteristics of Welding Machines
Mechanical Characteristics of Typical Spot Welders
Influence of Machine Stiffness
Influence of Friction
Influence of Moving Mass
Follow-Up in a Welding Cycle
Squeeze Time and Hold Time Measurement
Other Factors

Numerical Simulation in Resistance Spot Welding
Coupled Electrical-Thermal-Mechanical Analysis
Simulation of Contact Properties and Contact Area
Simulation of Other Factors
Modeling of Microstructure Evolution
Examples of Numerical Simulation of RSW Processes

Statistical Design, Analysis, and Inference in Resistance Welding Research
Basic Concepts and Procedures
Experiment with Continuous Response
Experiments with Categorical Responses
Computer Simulation Experiments


References appear at the end of each chapter.

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Dr. Hongyan Zhang is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Toledo. He has published over 70 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers and contributed to a number of American Welding Society Standards. His research interests include materials, forming, welding, and mechanical fastening; manufacturing process monitoring and control; failure analysis; structural optimization; and hybrid propulsion systems.

Dr. Jacek Senkara is a professor of the Production Engineering Faculty at Warsaw University of Technology. He has published roughly 100 scientific and technical papers in professional journals and conference proceedings and served as a principal investigator for a number of government, industry, and university-supported research projects. His research interests include materials aspects of welding and welding-related processes, along with the surface modification of materials.


"The second edition has made a great book even better. It remains a significant, practical aid to anyone interested in a better understanding of resistance welding science and it should be considered for their library."
Welding Journal, February 2013

Praise for the First Edition:
"The chapters are easy to comprehend, and the topics are presented in a 'big picture' basis. … General concepts are the highlight. … There are 20 to 40 references at the end of each chapter, and most of the chapters begin with a good literature, which then allows this book to be used as an introduction to welding at the graduate level in an engineering discipline."
JOM Online, March 2006

"[this book] will almost certainly find its way into the library of anyone who needs or wants to understand the physics behind resistance spot welding … [It offers] a detailed analysis of the physics involved in the resistance welding process that is, for the most part, remarkably easy to understand. … They [the authors] have also reinforced their methodical explanations with nearly 300 original graphics … For both the student and process user, there is a lot of basic information presented in an easy-to-read fashion … For theoretical studies or laboratory work, there is a bounty of information beyond the excellent compilation of reference materials. It might be too soon to proclaim this work as historically significant, but it seems a virtual certainty that it will be viewed as such. In any case, the authors have certainly done a great service to the resistance welding industry."
—David Beneteau, CenterLine Ltd., Windsor, Ontario, Canada