Over the last decade or so, more has been more written and talked about restorative justice than any other criminological topic. In addition to the proliferation of published work, there have been numerous national and international conferences and seminars both within and outside the academy, and the stream of e-conversations taking place via the many and various restorative justice e-mail lists and websites is in constant spate.
As research on and around restorative justice flourishes as never before, this new four-volume collection in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Criminology, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subdiscipline’s rich and diverse heritage. It provides a much-needed map to steer students and scholars towards the truly essential foundational and cutting-edge materials and offers an essential grounding in the philosophy and principles of restorative justice in a number of jurisdictions around the world. Furthermore, it furnishes users with a critical awareness of the potential and the pitfalls of restorative justice in responses to crime, conflict, and civil disputes.
The first volume in the collection (‘The Rise of Restorative Justice’) brings together the best research that inspired the restorative justice ‘movement’ and gives a flavour of some early practices that, on reflection, can now be considered to be at least partly restorative. The work gathered here considers the competing definitions of restorative justice, distinguishing between those that focus on restorative values and principles, those that emphasize aims and outcomes, and those that are premised on the idea that the term should only be applied to specific processes or programmes. Volume I will also develop in readers a critical approach to the relationship between punishment and restorative justice in the context of debates about whether restorative justice can fairly be characterized as non-punitive in nature.
Volume II (‘Restorative Practices on the International Stage’) collects the most important work to describe and critically evaluate the varied practices across the globe which have been labelled ‘restorative justice’. The scholarship gathered here assesses the extent to which the (often competing) visions, discussed in Volume I, have been put into practice and draws on research carried out in North America, Asia, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Africa in various civil and criminal justice settings.
Volume III (‘The Promise of Restorative Justice’) assembles the vital research to describe the instrumental achievements of restorative justice and to provide users with critical approaches in assessing ‘effectiveness’. The materials in Volume III also give a thorough appreciation of how successfully restorative justice is able to reconcile the variety of interests that may be implicated in responding to crime, and examines the related issues of accountability, the protection of rights, and proportionality.
The final volume in the collection (‘Stumbling Blocks on the Road to a Restorative Jurisprudence’) gathers together key thinking to explore the extent to which there is an emerging consensus on a future jurisprudence of restorative justice. The material here seeks to understand the role of restorative justice in relation to both rehabilitation and retribution and other philosophies of punishment, and to consider how it can be protected by legal standards and ethical safeguards.
Restorative Justice is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, a leading scholar in the field, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. An essential reference collection, it is destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners of restorative justice as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: The Rise of Restorative Justice
Part 1: The Start of a New Debate
1. N. Christie, ‘Conflicts as Property’, British Journal of Criminology, 1977, 17, 1, 1–15.
2. R. E. Barnett, ‘Restitution: A New Paradigm of Criminal Justice’, Ethics, 1977, 87, 4, 279–301.
3. H. Zehr and H. Mika, ‘Fundamental Concepts of Restorative Justice’, Contemporary Justice Review, 1997, 1, 1, 47–56.
4. A. Ashworth, ‘Some Doubts about Restorative Justice’, Criminal Law Forum, 1993, 4, 2, 277–99.
5. D. W. Van Ness, ‘A Reply to Andrew Ashworth’, Criminal Law Forum, 1993, 4, 2, 301–6.
6. A. Bottoms, ‘Some Sociological Reflections on Restorative Justice’, in A. von Hirsch et al. (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Hart Publishing, 2003), pp. 79–113.
Part 2: Proto-restorative Practices
7. D. E. Peachey, ‘The Kitchener Experiment’, in M. Wright and B. Galaway (eds.), Mediation and Criminal Justice: Victims, Offenders and Community (Sage, 1989), pp. 14–26.
8. P. McCold, ‘The Recent History of Restorative Justice: Mediation, Circles, and Conferencing’, in D. Sullivan and L. Tifft (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Routledge, 2008), pp. 23–51.
9. T. F. Marshall, ‘The Evolution of Restorative Justice in Britain’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 1996, 4, 4, 21–43.
Part 3: Restorative Justice: From Philosophy to Practice
10. J. Braithwaite and S. Mugford, ‘Conditions of Successful Reintegration Ceremonies: Dealing with Juvenile Offenders’, British Journal of Criminology, 1994, 34, 139–71.
11. A. von Hirsch, A. Ashworth, and C. Shearing, ‘Specifying Aims and Limits for Restorative Justice: A "Making Amends" Model?’, in A. von Hirsch et al. (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Hart Publishing, 2003), pp. 21–41.
12. D. Miers, ‘The International Development of Restorative Justice’, in G. Johnstone and D. W. Van Ness (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan, 2007), pp. 447–67.
13. K. Daly, ‘Restorative Justice: The Real Story’, Punishment and Society, 2002, 4, 1, 55–79.
Volume II: Restorative Practices on the International Stage
Part 4: Restorative Responses Within the Criminal Justice System
14. J. Dignan et al., ‘Staging Restorative Justice Encounters Against a Criminal Justice Backdrop: A Dramaturgical Analysis’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2007, 7, 1, 5–32.
15. C. Hoyle, ‘Policing and Restorative Justice’, in G. Johnston and D. Van Ness (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan, 2007), pp. 292–311.
16. E. Elliott, ‘Security, Without Care: Challenges for Restorative Values in Prison’, Contemporary Justice Review, 2007, 10, 2, 193–208.
17. J. V. Roberts and L. J. Stalans, ‘Restorative Sentencing: Exploring the Views of the Public’, Social Justice Research, 2004, 17, 3, 315–34.
Part 5: Restorative Youth Justice
18. H. Blagg, ‘Reparation and Justice for Juveniles: The Corby Experience’, British Journal of Criminology, 1985, 25, 7, 267–79.
19. A. Crawford, ‘Situating Restorative Youth Justice in Crime Control and Prevention’, in E. van der Spuy, S. Parmentier, and A. Dissel (eds.), Restorative Justice: Politics, Policies and Prospects (Juta and Co. Ltd., 2007), pp. 1–21.
20. G. Maxwell and A. Morris, ‘Youth Justice in New Zealand: Restorative Justice in Practice?’, Journal of Social Issues, 2006, 62, 2, 239–58.
Part 6: New Challenges for Restorative Justice: Family Violence
21. B. Hudson, ‘Restorative Justice and Gendered Violence: Diversion or Effective Justice?’, British Journal of Criminology, 2002, 42, 3, 616–34.
22. J. Stubbs, ‘Beyond Apology? Domestic Violence and Critical Questions for Restorative Justice’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2007, 7, 2, 169–87.
23. D. Coker, ‘Transformative Justice: Anti-Subordination Processes in Cases of Domestic Violence’, in H. Strang and J. Braithwaite (eds.), Restorative Justice and Family Violence (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 122–52.
Part 7: New Challenges for Restorative Justice: Sexual Violence
24. K. Daly, ‘Restorative Justice and Sexual Assault: An Archival Study of Court and Conference Cases’, British Journal of Criminology, 2006, 46, 2, 334–56.
25. A. Cossins, ‘Restorative Justice and Child Sex Offences: The Theory and the Practice’, British Journal of Criminology, 2008, 48, 359–78.
26. K. Daly, ‘Setting the Record Straight and A Call for Radical Change: A Reply to Annie Cossins on "Restorative Justice and Child Sex Offences"’, British Journal of Criminology, 2008, 48, 4, 557–66.
Part 8: New Challenges for Restorative Justice: Homicide
27. M. Umbreit and B. Vos, ‘Homicide Survivors Meet the Offender Prior to Execution: Restorative Justice Through Dialogue’, Homicide Studies, 2000, 4, 1, 63–87.
28. M. Radelet and M. Borg, ‘Comment on Umbreit and Vos: Retributive Versus Restorative Justice’, Homicide Studies, 2000, 4, 1, 88–92.
29. M. Umbreit, ‘Reply to Radelet and Borg’, Homicide Studies, 2000, 4, 1, 93–7.
Part 9: New Challenges for Restorative Justice: Crimes against Humanity
30. E. G. M. Weitekamp et al., ‘How to Deal with Mass Victimization and Gross Human Rights Violations: A Restorative Justice Approach’, in U. Ewald and K. Turkovic (eds.), Large-Scale Victimisation as a Potential Source of Terrorist Activities (IOS Press, 2006), pp. 217–41.
31. E. Kiss, ‘Moral Ambition Within and Beyond Political Constraints: Reflections on Restorative Justice’, in R. I. Rotberg and D. Thompson (eds.), Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions (Princeton University Press, 2000), pp. 68–98.
32. L. Waldorf, ‘Mass Justice for Mass Atrocity in Post-Genocide Rwanda’, Temple Law Review, 2006, 79, 1, 1–87.
33. P. Clark, ‘The Rules (and Politics) of Engagement: The Gacaca Courts and Post-Genocide Justice, Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda’, in P. Clark and Z. Kaufman (eds.), After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond (Columbia University Press, 2008), pp. 297–319.
Volume III: The Promise of Restorative Justice
Part 10: Restoring Victims
34. J. Dignan, ‘Evaluating Restorative Justice from a Victim Perspective: Empirical Evidence’, Understanding Victims and Restorative Justice (Open University Press, 2005), pp. 132–61.
35. H. Strang and L. W. Sherman, ‘Repairing the Harm: Victims and Restorative Justice’, Utah Law Review, 2003, 1, 15–42.
36. C. Hoyle, ‘Restorative Justice, Victims and the Police’, in T Newburn (ed.), Handbook of Policing, 2nd edn. (Willan, 2008), pp. 794–823.
37. R. Young, ‘Testing the Limits of Restorative Justice: The Case of Corporate Victims’, in C. Hoyle and R. Young (eds.), New Visions of Crime Victims (Hart Publishing, 2002), pp. 133–72.
Part 11: Rebuilding Communities
38. A. Crawford, ‘The State, Community and Restorative Justice: Heresy, Nostalgia and Butterfly Collecting’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Willan, 2002), pp. 101–29.
39. K. McEvoy and H. Mika, ‘Punishment, Policing and Praxis: Restorative Justice and Non-Violent Alternatives to Paramilitary Punishments in Northern Ireland’, Policing and Society, 2001, 11, 359–82.
40. R. Weisberg, ‘Restorative Justice and the Danger of "Community"’, Utah Law Review, 2003, 1, 343–74.
Part 12: Diversion, Rehabilitation, and Desistance
41. T. R. Tyler, ‘Restorative Justice and Procedural Justice: Dealing with Rule Breaking’, Journal of Social Issues, 2006, 62, 2, 307–26.
42. R. Immarigeon, ‘What is the Place of Punishment and Imprisonment in Restorative Justice?’, in H. Zehr and B. Toews (eds.), Critical Issues in Restorative Justice (Criminal Justice Press, 2004), pp. 143–54.
43. L. Sherman and H. Strang, ‘Reducing Repeat Offending’, Restorative Justice: The Evidence (The Smith Institute, 2007), pp. 68–72.
44. G. Maxwell and A. Morris, ‘Restorative Justice and Reconviction’, Contemporary Justice Review, 2002, 5, 2, 133–46.
45. G. Robinson and J. Shapland, ‘Reducing Recidivism: A Task for Restorative Justice?’, British Journal of Criminology, 2008, 48, 337–58.
46. R. Young and A. Wilcox, ‘How Green was Thames Valley?: Policing the Image of Restorative Justice Cautions’, Policing and Society, 2007, 17, 2, 141–63.
Part 13: Responsive Regulation: Restorative Justice Outside of Criminal Justice
47. J. Braithwaite, ‘Responsive Regulation’, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 29–43.
48. D. Roche, ‘Dimensions of Restorative Justice’, Journal of Social Issues, 2006, 62, 2, 217–38.
49. J. Pennell, ‘Family Group Conferencing in Child Welfare: Responsive and Regulatory Interfaces’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2004, 31, 1, 117–35.
50. K. Murphy and N. Harris, ‘Shaming, Shame and Recidivism: A Test of Reintegrative Shaming Theory in the White-Collar Crime Context’, British Journal of Criminology, 2007, 47, 900–17.
51. M. Levi, ‘Shaming and the Regulation of Fraud and Business "Misconduct": Some Preliminary Explorations’, in S. Karstedt and K.-D. Bussmann (eds.), Social Dynamics of Crime and Control (Hart Publishing, 2000), pp. 117–32.
52. B. Morrison, ‘Restorative Justice in Schools’, in E. Elliott and R. M. Gordon (eds.), New Directions in Restorative Justice: Issues, Practice, Evaluation (Willan, 2005), pp. 26–52.
53. E. McLaughlin and A. Johansen, ‘A Force for Change? The Prospects of Applying Restorative Justice to Citizen Complaints Against the Police in England and Wales’, British Journal of Criminology, 2002, 42, 635–53.
54. R. Young et al., ‘Informal Resolution of Complaints Against the Police: A Quasi-Experimental Test of Restorative Justice’, Criminal Justice, 2005, 5, 3, 279–317.
Volume IV: Stumbling Blocks on the Road to a Restorative Jurisprudence
Part 14: Procedural Fairness, Ethics, and Accountability
55. J. Braithwaite, ‘In Search of Restorative Jurisprudence’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Willan, 2002), pp. 150–67.
56. A. Ashworth, ‘Responsibilities, Rights and Restorative Justice’, British Journal of Criminology, 2002, 42, 3, 578–95.
57. A. Eliaerts and E. Dumortier, ‘Restorative Justice for Children: In Need of Procedural Safeguards and Standards’, in E. G. M. Weitekamp and H.-J. Kerner (eds.), Restorative Justice: Theoretical Foundations (Willan, 2002), pp. 204–23.
58. K. Warner, ‘Family Group Conferences and the Rights of the Offender’, in C. Alder and J. Wundersitz (eds.), Family Conferencing and Juvenile Justice: The Way Forward or Misplaced Optimism? (Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994), pp. 141–52.
59. G. Pavlich, ‘Ethics, Universal Principles and Restorative Justice’, in G. Johnstone and D. W. Van Ness (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan, 2007), pp. 615–30.
60. D. Roche, ‘Semi-Formal Justice: Combining Informal and Formal Justice’, Accountability in Restorative Justice (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 226–39.
Part 15: Indigenous Justice
61. H. Blagg, ‘Restorative Justice: A Good Idea Whose Time has Gone?’, Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonisation of Justice (Federation Press, 2008), pp. 74–90.
62. C. Cunneen, ‘Reviving Restorative Justice Traditions?’, in G. Johnstone and D. Van Ness (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan, 2007), pp. 113–31.
Part 16: The Role of Shame in Restorative Processes
63. J. Braithwaite, E. Ahmed, and V. Braithwaite, ‘Shame, Restorative Justice, and Crime’, in F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, and K. R. Blevins (eds.), Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory–Advances in Criminological Theory (Transaction Publishers, 2006), pp. 397–417.
64. S. M. Retzinger and T. J. Scheff, ‘Strategy for Community Conferences: Emotions and Social Bonds’, in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.), Restorative Justice: International Perspectives (Criminal Justice Press, 1996), pp. 315–36.
65. L. Walgrave and I. Aertsen, ‘Reintegrative Shaming and Restorative Justice: Interchangeable, Complementary or Different?’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 1996, 4, 4, 67–85.
66. N. Harris and S. Maruna, ‘Shame, Shaming and Restorative Justice’, in D. Sullivan and L. Tifft (eds.), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Routledge, 2008), pp. 452–62.
67. G. Maxwell and A. Morris, ‘What is the Place of Shame in Restorative Justice?’, in H. Zehr and B. Toews (eds.), Critical Issues in Restorative Justice (Criminal Justice Press, 2004), pp. 133–42.
Part 17: When Parents Feel Ashamed
68. J. Prichard, ‘Parent-Child Dynamics in Community Conferences: Some Questions for Reintegrative Shaming, Practice and Restorative Justice’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 2002, 35, 3, 330–46.
69. L. Bradt, N. Vettenburg, and R. Roose, ‘Relevant Others in Restorative Practices for Minors: For What Purposes?’, The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 2007, 40, 3, 291–312.
70. C. Hoyle and S. Noguera, ‘Supporting Young Offenders Through Restorative Justice: Parents as (In)Appropriate Adults’, British Journal of Community Justice, 2008, 6, 3, 67–85.
Part 18: A Place for Proportionality?
71. A. von Hirsch and A. Ashworth, ‘Not Not Just Deserts: A Response to Braithwaite and Pettit’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 1992, 12, 1, 83–98.
72. P. Pettit with J. Braithwaite, ‘Not Just Deserts, Even in Sentencing’, Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 1992, 4, 3, 225–39.
73. M. M. O’Hear, ‘Is Restorative Justice Compatible with Sentencing Uniformity?’, Marquette Law Review, 2005, 89, 2, 305–25.
74. I. Edwards, ‘Restorative Justice, Sentencing and the Court of Appeal’, Criminal Law Review, 2006, 110–23.
Part 19: Restoration, Retribution, or ‘Restoration Through Retribution’?
75. L. Zedner, ‘Reparation and Retribution: Are They Reconcilable?’, Modern Law Review, 1994, 57, 228–50.
76. K. Daly, ‘Revisiting the Relationship between Retributive and Restorative Justice’, in H. Strang and J. Braithwaite (eds.), Restorative Justice: Philosophy to Practice (Ashgate, 2001), pp. 33–54.
77. R. Young and C. Hoyle, ‘Restorative Justice and Punishment’, in S. McConville (ed.), The Use of Punishment (Willan, 2003), pp. 199–226.
78. R. A. Duff, ‘Restorative Punishment and Punitive Restoration’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Willan, 2002), pp. 82–100.
Part 20: Some Concerns from an Optimist
79. J. Braithwaite, ‘Worries about Restorative Justice’, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 137–68.