The development of technology in the emergency sanitation sector has not been emphasised sufficiently considering that the management of human excreta is a basic requirement for every person. The lack of technology tailored to emergency situations complicates efforts to cater for sanitation needs in challenging humanitarian crisis. Concerns persists on the lack of faecal sludge management that considers the whole sanitation chain from containment until treatment. This study focused on the development of a smart emergency toilet termed the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) smart toilet to address the limitation in technical options. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain. This study also addresses the limited time for planning in emergencies by developing a decision support system (DSS) to help quick selection of optimal sanitation options. The aim was to enable users of the DSS to plan their emergency sanitation response within the shortest time possible. The study aims to contribute toward a better emergency sanitation response by application of technology advances.
1 General introduction
2 eSOS™ - emergency Sanitation Operation System
3 eSOS™ Smart Toilet development history
4 Evaluation of eSOS™ Smart Toilet
5 Evaluation of water treatment and wastewater characterisation from eSOS Smart Toilet
6 Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS™ Smart Toilet
7 User acceptance of the experimental eSOS™ Smart Toilet
8 Decision support system for the provision of emergency sanitation
9 Development and validation of a financial flow simulator for the sanitation value chain
IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.
PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.
IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.