1st Edition

Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products Concepts, Tools, and Techniques

    357 Pages 159 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    357 Pages 159 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Reverse engineering is widely practiced in the rubber industry. Companies routinely analyze competitors’ products to gather information about specifications or compositions. In a competitive market, introducing new products with better features and at a faster pace is critical for any manufacturer. Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques explains the principles and science behind rubber formulation development by reverse engineering methods. The book describes the tools and analytical techniques used to discover which materials and processes were used to produce a particular vulcanized rubber compound from a combination of raw rubber, chemicals, and pigments.

    A Compendium of Chemical, Analytical, and Physical Test Methods

    Organized into five chapters, the book first reviews the construction of compounding ingredients and formulations, from elastomers, fillers, and protective agents to vulcanizing chemicals and processing aids. It then discusses chemical and analytical methods, including infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, chromatography, and microscopy. It also examines physical test methods for visco-elastic behavior, heat aging, hardness, and other features. A chapter presents important reverse engineering concepts. In addition, the book includes a wide variety of case studies of formula reconstruction, covering large products such as tires and belts as well as smaller products like seals and hoses.

    Get Practical Insights on Reverse Engineering from the Book’s Case Studies

    Combining scientific principles and practical advice, this book brings together helpful insights on reverse engineering in the rubber industry. It is an invaluable reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers who want to produce comparative benchmark information, discover formulations used throughout the industry, improve product performance, and shorten the product development cycle.

    Compounding Ingredients and Formulation Construction
    Elastomers: Properties, Uses, and Vulcanization
    Protective Agents
    Vulcanizing Chemicals
    Processing Aids
    Formula Construction

    Principal Chemical and Analytical Methods Used in Reverse Engineering
    Chemical Analysis
    Infrared Spectroscopy
    Thermal Analysis
    Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
    Microscopy and Image Analysis
    Mass Spectrometry

    Principal Physical Test Methods
    Visco-Elastic Behavior
    Elastic Modulus
    Some Special Features of General Physical Tests

    Reverse Engineering Concepts
    General Concepts and Examples
    Formula ReconstructionSpecific Example
    Numerical Problem on Reverse Engineering

    Formulation Reconstruction: Case Studies
    Tire Tread Cap
    Tire Sidewall
    Tire Inner Liner
    Heat Resistance Conveyor Belt Cover Compound
    Fuel Hose Cover
    Rubber Seal
    V-Belt Compound
    Rubber Covered Rolls
    Rubber Part in Rubber-Metal Bonded Ring
    Non-Black Elastic Tape
    Rubber Diaphragm of Audio Speaker
    Rubber Sealant


    Appendix A: Statistical Aspects of Chemical Analysis
    Appendix B: Material Properties
    Appendix C: Conversion Factors
    Appendix D: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy




    Saikat Das Gupta is chief scientist in research and development at Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI), India.

    Rabindra Mukhopadhyay is director and chief executive at HASETRI, India, director of research and development at JK Tyre & Industries Limited, and chairman of the Indian Rubber Institute.

    Krishna C. Baranwal is former executive vice president—technical at Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Ohio.

    Anil K. Bhowmick is a Professor of Eminence at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and is currently the director of the Indian Institute of Technology Patna.

    "Rubber is among the most customizable of materials. This fact represents a great opportunity for companies seeking to differentiate their materials and products in the marketplace, and it is the reason that development and competition in the rubber industry hinges so much on materials science. It also presents a great challenge for companies seeking to stay on top of current market trends, since a compound’s make-up is usually a trade secret. The authors of this book are authorities on the subject, and they have done a great service by bringing together this collection of valuable techniques. Readers will appreciate the convenience of having this information in a topic-focused volume, and they will benefit from the decades of experience that the authors bring to the subject."
    ––Will Mars, CEO, Endurica LLC and editor, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, USA

    "Reverse engineering is very important. This is the first text addressing this area and will therefore be of considerable value."
    —Brendan Rodgers, ExxonMobil, Texas, USA