Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products : Concepts, Tools, and Techniques book cover
1st Edition

Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products
Concepts, Tools, and Techniques

ISBN 9781138075252
Published March 31, 2017 by CRC Press
357 Pages 159 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Reverse engineering is widely practiced in the rubber industry. Companies routinely analyze competitors’ products to gather information about specifications or compositions. In a competitive market, introducing new products with better features and at a faster pace is critical for any manufacturer. Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques explains the principles and science behind rubber formulation development by reverse engineering methods. The book describes the tools and analytical techniques used to discover which materials and processes were used to produce a particular vulcanized rubber compound from a combination of raw rubber, chemicals, and pigments.

A Compendium of Chemical, Analytical, and Physical Test Methods

Organized into five chapters, the book first reviews the construction of compounding ingredients and formulations, from elastomers, fillers, and protective agents to vulcanizing chemicals and processing aids. It then discusses chemical and analytical methods, including infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, chromatography, and microscopy. It also examines physical test methods for visco-elastic behavior, heat aging, hardness, and other features. A chapter presents important reverse engineering concepts. In addition, the book includes a wide variety of case studies of formula reconstruction, covering large products such as tires and belts as well as smaller products like seals and hoses.

Get Practical Insights on Reverse Engineering from the Book’s Case Studies

Combining scientific principles and practical advice, this book brings together helpful insights on reverse engineering in the rubber industry. It is an invaluable reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers who want to produce comparative benchmark information, discover formulations used throughout the industry, improve product performance, and shorten the product development cycle.

Table of Contents

Compounding Ingredients and Formulation Construction
Elastomers: Properties, Uses, and Vulcanization
Protective Agents
Vulcanizing Chemicals
Processing Aids
Formula Construction

Principal Chemical and Analytical Methods Used in Reverse Engineering
Chemical Analysis
Infrared Spectroscopy
Thermal Analysis
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
Microscopy and Image Analysis
Mass Spectrometry

Principal Physical Test Methods
Visco-Elastic Behavior
Elastic Modulus
Some Special Features of General Physical Tests

Reverse Engineering Concepts
General Concepts and Examples
Formula ReconstructionSpecific Example
Numerical Problem on Reverse Engineering

Formulation Reconstruction: Case Studies
Tire Tread Cap
Tire Sidewall
Tire Inner Liner
Heat Resistance Conveyor Belt Cover Compound
Fuel Hose Cover
Rubber Seal
V-Belt Compound
Rubber Covered Rolls
Rubber Part in Rubber-Metal Bonded Ring
Non-Black Elastic Tape
Rubber Diaphragm of Audio Speaker
Rubber Sealant


Appendix A: Statistical Aspects of Chemical Analysis
Appendix B: Material Properties
Appendix C: Conversion Factors
Appendix D: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy



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Saikat Das Gupta is chief scientist in research and development at Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI), India.

Rabindra Mukhopadhyay is director and chief executive at HASETRI, India, director of research and development at JK Tyre & Industries Limited, and chairman of the Indian Rubber Institute.

Krishna C. Baranwal is former executive vice president—technical at Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Ohio.

Anil K. Bhowmick is a Professor of Eminence at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and is currently the director of the Indian Institute of Technology Patna.


"Rubber is among the most customizable of materials. This fact represents a great opportunity for companies seeking to differentiate their materials and products in the marketplace, and it is the reason that development and competition in the rubber industry hinges so much on materials science. It also presents a great challenge for companies seeking to stay on top of current market trends, since a compound’s make-up is usually a trade secret. The authors of this book are authorities on the subject, and they have done a great service by bringing together this collection of valuable techniques. Readers will appreciate the convenience of having this information in a topic-focused volume, and they will benefit from the decades of experience that the authors bring to the subject."
––Will Mars, CEO, Endurica LLC and editor, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, USA

"Reverse engineering is very important. This is the first text addressing this area and will therefore be of considerable value."
—Brendan Rodgers, ExxonMobil, Texas, USA