This title was first published in 1978: Communism aims at putting working people in charge of their lives. A multiplicity of Councils, rather than a big state bureaucracy is needed to empower working people and to focus control over society. Mattick develops a theory of a council communism through his survey of the history of the left in Germany and Russia. He challenges Bolshevik politics: especially their perspectives on questions of Party and Class, and the role of Trade Unions. Mattick argues that a??The revolutions which succeeded, first of all, in Russia and China, were not proletarian revolutions in the Marxist sense, leading to the a??association of free and equal producersa??, but state-capitalist revolutions, which were objectively unable to issue into socialism. Marxism served here as a mere ideology to justify the rise of modified capitalist systems, which were no longer determined by market competition but controlled by way of the authoritarian state. Based on the peasantry, but designed with accelerated industrialisation to create an industrial proletariat, they were ready to abolish the traditional bourgeoisie but not capital as a social relationship. This type of capitalism had not been foreseen by Marx and the early Marxists, even though they advocated the capture of state-power to overthrow the bourgeoisie a?? but only in order to abolish the state itself.a??
Table of Contents
1. Karl Kautsky: From Marx to Hitler
2. Luxemburg versus Lenin
3. The Lenin Legend 4. Bolshevism and Stalinism
5. Council Communism
6. Otto Rühle and the German Labour Movement
7. Spontaneity and Organisation
8. Karl Korsch: His Contribution to Revolutionary Marxism
9. Humanism and Socialism
10. Marxism and the New Physics
11. Monopoly Capital
12. Workers’ Capital
Paul Mattick is Professor Emeritus at Adelphi University in New York. He was previously the editor of the International Journal of Political Economy, and he is the author of Social Knowledge.