Revival: Roman Life and Manners Under the Early Empire (1913): 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Revival: Roman Life and Manners Under the Early Empire (1913)

1st Edition

By Ludwig Henrich Friedlaender


730 pages

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Every attempted delineation of the manners and customs of Imperial Rome must necessarily include a survey, as exhaustive as may be, of the spectacles, as the best measure of her grandeur, and as indicative in many ways of her moral and intellectual condition.

Originally, for the most part, religious celebrations, they became, even in the later Republic, the best means of purchasing popular favour, and, under the Empire, of keeping the populace contented. Augustus, the tale runs, once reproached Pylades the Pantomime for his jealousy of a rival, and Pylades replied: 'It is to your advantage, Caesar, that the people concerns itself about us'. But these spectacles effected more even than the diversion of popular interest; their magnificence was a gauge of the popularity of the sovereign. The emperors, like Louis XIV, knew how admiration aids absolute autocracy; like Napoleon, that the imagination of the people must be excited: splendid festivals were one of their most indispensable and most constant devices. Even Caligula, according to Josephus, was honoured and beloved by the folly of the populace; the women and the youth did not desire his death; distributions of meat, the games and the gladiatorial combats had won their hearts, for such were the delights of the mob: the lavishing of these gifts was nominally due to consideration for the populace, though the gladiatorial combats were only intended to sate the monarch's lust of blood.

Table of Contents

I The Lotus Tree. (By Prof. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau)

II Exhibition of natural Curiosities at Rome

III Provincials in Rome

IV Embassies to Roman Emperors from foreign Countries

V The Population of Rome

VI On the Use of Vehicles in Rome

VII Roma aurea, aelerna, sacra

VIII The Officials a rationibus, a libellis, ab epistulis

IX The Order of the Offices held by Imperial Freedmen

X Roman Names assumed by Peregrini and Freedmen

XI The Friends and Companions of the Emperor

XII The Use of Viv Clarissimus as a Senatorial Title

XIII Mandragora

XIV The Sportula of the Clientes

XV The Use of Domine as a Form of Address in ordinary Life

XVI Endearing and complimentary Names for Women and Girls

XVII The Story of Amor and Psyche and other Traces of the Folk-tale in Antiquity

XVIII The usual Age of Girls at Betrothal and Marriage

XIX The Use of Homeric personal Names for Appellatives

XX Roman Finds in the North. (By Dr. Otto Tischler, of Konigsberg)

XXI Tourists' Inscriptions on the Pyramids

XXII The Use of the Word Romantic as applied to natural Scenery

XXIII On the Meaning of the Names Viola (tov), Anemone, Narcissus, Hyacinthus. (By Prof. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslan)

XXTV Three Inscriptions on Charioteers

XXV Diversium

XXVI Representations of Gladiators (and Venatores) in Works of Art

XXVII The gladiatorial Tesserae

XXVIII Summa and Secunda Rudis ; Primus and Secundus Palus

XXIX Costume and Arms of the Gladiators

XXX On the Animals used for the Roman Venationes

XXXI How Animals were caught for the Amphitheatre

XXXII Modern Animal Fights

XXXIII Executions and other Punishments carried out in the Amphitheatre

XXXIV On the Velarium of the Amphitheatre

XXXV Abolition of the Gladiatorial Shows. Gladiatorial Shows in the Middle Ages and more recent Times

XXXVI List of Roman and provincial Amphitheatres

XXXVII The Performance of Comedies under the later Empire

XXXVIII The Performance of Tragedies under the later Empire

XXXIX On the frequent Use of famous Artists' Names

XL The Pyrrhic of Asia Minor .

XLI The Contests in the Actian Agon at Nicopolis

XLII The Contests in the Capitoline Agon

XLIII Continuance of the Capitoline Agon

XLIV The Extension of Gymnastic Contests in the Western Provinces

XLV The Taxes of three Roman Provinces

XLVI Rodbertus on the Comparison of ancient with modem Wealth

XL VII The Dissolution of Pearls in Vinegar

XLVIII A Catalogue of Table Delicacies from a Greek Comedy

XLIX Specification of Silver Plate according to Weight

L Prices of Sepulchral Monuments

LI Latrines in Rome

LII Civitates Mundi

LIII Marble and Bronze as Materials for Statues

LIV Prices of Statues

LV Borrowing from the Controversiae of the Elder Seneca in the Gesta Romanorum

LVI The Chronology of the Epigrams of Martial and Statius

LVII The Patrons and Friends of Statius

LVIII The Chronology of Juvenal's Life and Satires

LIX On the Personal Names in Juvenal

LX Chronological Notes on Gellius

About the Author

Ludwig Henrich Friedlaender (July 16, 1824 Königsberg – December 16, 1909 Straßburg, German Empire) was a German philologist. He was one of the preeminent scholars of Ancient Rome of his time and is known for his research on Roman daily life and customs. He was a Professor at Albertina and served as its Rector 1865/66 and 1874/5. He was also a member of the House of Lords.

He studied at the universities of his hometown Königsberg, Leipzig, and Berlin from 1841 to 1845. In 1847 he became privat-docent of classical philology at Königsberg, in 1856 assistant professor, and in 1858 professor.

He retired in 1892 to Strasbourg, where he was honorary professor at its university.

He was a son of the merchant Hirsch Friedländer (1791–1871) and Emma Levia Perlbach (1801–1863), and was raised Jewish. He later converted to Protestantism. In 1856, he married Laura Gutzeit, daughter of an East Prussian estate owner. Their son Paul Friedländer was a noted chemist. Their daughter Charlotte Friedländer was married to the art historian Georg Dehio. Alfred Bradley Gough (1872–1939) M.A., Ph.D. was a Casberd Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. He worked as an English Lector in the University of Kiel, 1896-1905. He wrote the books - On the Middle English Metrical Romances of Emare and Constance Saga.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / General
HISTORY / Ancient / General
HISTORY / Ancient / Rome