First published in 1998, Revolutionary Iran investigates two major political transformations in the modern history of Iran: the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-09 and the Islamic Revolution 1976-79 and their relation to the modernization of Iran in this century. It addresses a core question: Why did the clergy not take political power in the Constitutional Revolution when Iran was a traditional society and they played a key leadership role in the revolution; yet they succeeded in the more modern Iran of 1979.
Characterization of socio-economic relationships between the two major influential groups of civil society in Iran and their role in political transformation is considered central for answering such a question. The book deals with revolution in terms of relationships between civil society and state; which, it is argued, are central to analysing and understanding modern movements in Iran and other Islamic countries. The major contribution of the book can be summarized as follows:
Part 1. Civil Society in Iran, Foreign Impact, and the Constitutional Revolution. 1. The Construction of the Muslim Society of Iran. 2. Civil Society in Iran. 3. Iran on the Eve of the Constitutional Revolution. 4. The Constitutional Revolution. 5. The Constitutionalism of the Ulama. Part 2. The New Monarchical Regime, Modernization, and the Islamic Revolution. 6. Iran Under the Pahlavis. 7. Modernization and the Ulama. 8. Iran on the Eve of the Islamic Revolution. 9. The Islamic Revolution. Part 3. Discussion and Conclusions. 10. The Two Revolutions: Comparative Reflections. 11. Conceptual Reflections: Islamic Civil Society, Modernization, Revolution.
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