1st Edition

Risk and Hazard Management for Festivals and Events

By Peter Wynn-Moylan Copyright 2018
    336 Pages 26 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    336 Pages 26 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Events of all types are produced every day for all manner of purposes, attracting all sorts of people. To provide a safe and secure setting in which people gather is imperative. Event risk and hazard management must be fully integrated into all event plans and throughout the event management process.

    Hazard management is the planning process required for the effective management of potential adverse incidents and areas of uncertainty. It involves intensive, detailed planning and cooperation to apply control systems to minimise hazards associated with venues, outdoor sites, work procedures, facilities, equipment and crowds of spectators. It involves planning for emergencies and security, and compliance with legal constraints and requirements.

    Risk and Hazard Management for Festivals and Events provides students with a comprehensive, fully integrated planning and management mechanism that can be applied to events of all types and size. The Event Safety Management System provides guidelines and processes for proactive methods to identify, assess and control hazardous conditions and practices. The system incorporates design of festival venues and sites, and unites the operational functions of crowd control, communications, security, terrorism prevention processes and emergency response protocols.    

    Explanation of the causes of crowd disasters and studies into crowd behaviour are supported with international case studies. Written in an accessible, practical way, this book is essential reading for all events students and event managers.


    Lists of figures

    List of tables



    Chapter one. Event Hazard and Risk Management: Regulations and Legislation

    Chapter Objectives

    Duty of Care

    ALARP - Managing hazard to a level that is ‘as low as reasonably practicable’

    Occupational Health and Safety

    Defining occupational health and safety (OH&S)

    Workplace Health and Safety Responsibilities

    Persons Conducting a Business or Undertaking


    Definition of Worker

    Other Persons at an Event

    Laws, Regulations and Codes of Practice

    Regulations - Prescriptive standards

    Performance-based standards

    Process standards

    Codes of practice

    Administration of Legislation




    Manage the Risk.

    Transfer the Risk.



    References and Bibliography



    Chapter two. Event Safety Management System (ESMS)

    Chapter Objectives

    Event safety policy

    Organisational Structure and Allocation of Responsibilities

    Health and safety officer


    Multi-Agency Teamwork

    Implementing a Safety Planning Process

    Hazard and Risk Management Process

    Hazard Management Definitions

    Hazard Evaluation

    Establish the Context

    The main steps in identifying hazardous conditions


    Evaluation of Hazards


    Control of Hazards





    Monitoring and evaluation

    Monitor and Review

    Information management


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter three. Understanding Crowd Disasters

    Chapter Objectives

    Death and Injury in Crowds at Festivals and Events

    Crowd Crush

    Crowd Turbulence or Crowd Quake

    Defining Crowds

    One Crowd or Many

    Crowd Behaviour theory

    Crowding Perception

    Place Scripts (habitual behaviour in a place)

    Crowd Behaviour in an Emergency


    References and Bibliography


    Chapter four. Crowd Management Planning

    Chapter Objectives

    Managing Crowds

    Crowd Management or Crowd Control

    Planning and Preparation

    Good practice manuals for crowd management planning

    What If...? Simulation Modelling

    Modelling Techniques

    Various Models for Simulating Crowd Behaviours

    Evacuation Simulation Software

    ‘What If’ Exercises

    DIM-ICE Model


    References and Bibliography


    Chapter five. Space and Flow in Public Areas

    Chapter Objectives


    Density & Movement

    Crowd Flow

    Crowd Processing

    Early opening and delayed closing


    Queueing theory

    Flow charts

    Crowd Monitoring & Control

    Crowd Characteristics

    Crowd Control Staff

    Assessing required staff numbers

    Stewarding and Ushering

    Crowd Monitoring Tasks

    Monitoring Points

    Closed circuit television (CCTV)

    Post Event Dispersal of the Crowd

    Staff Crowd Management Training

    Communicating with the Crowd

    Pre-event communication

    During the Event

    Communication Messages

    Site Administration office – Communications Centre.

    On site communication systems


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter six. Safe Site Design

    Chapter Objectives

    Estimates of Audience Numbers

    Site and Venue Safety Evaluation

    Pre-event Inspection

    Environmental hazards

    Swimming and Water Areas

    Site Layout and Design

    Separation issues

    Crowd/ Traffic -related issues

    Access Entry

    Emergency Services Access

    Street and Unconfined Events

    Site Maps

    Creating the Site Map

    Computer Aided Design (CAD)

    Vehicle Traffic Management

    Crowd/ Traffic –separation related issues


    Secure Parking

    Traffic and parking controls

    Public transport

    Event signage

    Entrances and Perimeters

    Barriers and Fences

    Entrances and Exits

    Internal site movement control

    Stairways, gangways and ramps



    Location of stages

    Accommodating special needs

    Facilities and Stalls.

    Restricted areas


    Green Room


    On Site Facilities and Services

    Site Lighting and Power Requirements

    Power supply

    Stages, Platforms, and Other Performance Facilities

    Temporary Structures

    Doors and windows



    Toilet facilities

    Food Vendors and Staff Toilets




    Waste Management

    Litter management

    On Site First Aid - Emergency Medical Aid

    Medical Teams

    First Aid Facilities

    Ambulance services


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter seven. Site Management - Production and Operational Work Practice Hazards

    Chapter Objectives

    Production - overseeing and co-ordinating the site/venue set-up

    Site Construction Scheduling

    Production Scheduling

    Schedule of resource supply

    Site Construction

    Precinct control

    Sub-contractor management

    Safety Monitoring

    Weather Impacts

    On Site Operations & Facility Control

    Site Operations

    Immediate Pre opening activities

    Supervision of the event operation and venue services


    On Site Staff Communications

    Overseeing of the event breakdown

    Safe Work Practices and Equipment Use


    Assessing the risk

    Controlling the risk

    Response to violent incidents


    Identifying stress

    Assessing the risk

    Controlling the risk


    Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment

    Performance Area and Stage Safety

    Hazardous Equipment

    Registration, licensing, certification, permit to work

    Hazard identification and assessment process

    Overseeing equipment use work processes

    Common types of controls associated with equipment.

    Stop work

    Key information transfer and feedback

    Staging Equipment

    Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods


    Fireworks and flares

    Fire safety


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter eight. Food, Alcohol and Drugs

    Chapter Objectives


    Food Vans or Stalls

    Refuse Disposal

    Hand Washing

    Food Supplies

    Food Handling

    Thawing, Cooking, Heating and Cooling

    Cleaning and Sanitising

    Chemical Storage

    Food Storage - Temperature Control

    Food Handling Staff Considerations

    Gas Cylinders

    Other stall holders

    Tattooing and Body Piercing

    Alcohol and Drug Use at Festivals

    Safe Partying

    Adverse Health and Social Effects

    Implementing strategies to assist guests to drink responsibly

    Responsible service of alcohol


    Alcohol-free events

    Selling Alcohol


    Designated area




    Monitoring guests for intoxication

    Refusing to serve alcohol to intoxicated guests

    Removal of patrons from licensed premises

    Assisted Removals

    Other considerations

    On Site Breathalyzers

    Illicit Drugs

    Mixing Alcohol and Drugs


    Pill Testing

    Support for testing

    Arguments against testing


    Chill Out Space

    Health Promotion

    Infection Control and Personal Hygiene Issues

    Sexual assault at music festivals

    Offensive Behaviour


    References and Bibliography


    Chapter nine. Security and Law Enforcement On-Site

    Chapter Objectives


    General security staff

    Screening and Patrolling


    Security Procedures


    Media Passes

    Temporary Passes

    Searching of persons entering the event

    Bag Checks

    Body searches

    Warning notices

    Confiscated items


    Selecting a security contractor

    Security Screening of Staff


    Pre-employment Screening

    Pre-employment checks


    Qualifications and employment history

    Employment checks

    Criminal convictions

    Security checks for contractor staff

    Performer, Celebrity and VIP security

    Shared Responsibilities

    Liaison with VIP security

    Celebrity behaviour

    High profile events

    Enhanced Security Provision at High Profile Events

    Extra measures to be considered

    VIP Area Passes

    Security passes


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter ten. Counter Terrorism Protective Security

    Chapter Objectives

    Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice for Major Events

    Managing the Terrorism Risks

    Protective Measures

    Step One: Identify the threats.

    Step Two: Protecting and identifying vulnerabilities.

    Step Three: Identify measures to reduce risk

    Step Four: Review security measures and rehearse and review security and contingency plans.

    Threat Levels

    Response Levels

    Security Planning

    Creating the Security Plan

    Staff Security awareness

    Improvised explosive devices

    Explosive effects of a bomb

    Causes of fatalities, injuries and damage from blasts


    Protocols applicable to most incidents

    Site search

    Bomb Threat

    Suicide Bomb Attacks


    Firearm Attacks


    Staff Protocols for a firearms / weapons incident

    Police response

    Protected Spaces

    Open air events

    Suspicious Deliveries

    Chemical, biological or radiological material attacks

    Heavy vehicle attacks

    Hostile Reconnaissance


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter eleven. Emergency Response

    Chapter Objectives

    Cancelling the Event

    Suspending or re-scheduling

    Cancellation process

    Emergency Operations Centre (EOC)

    Documented procedures


    Transition considerations

    Emergency power

    Emergency Communications Systems

    Informing the public of an emergency

    Staff communications during an emergency

    Emergency Communications Planning

    Interagency communications

    Use of Social Media

    Protocols for responding to an emergency

    Emergency Grab Bags



    Decision to evacuate

    Delayed warnings

    Instructions to the public

    Warning Interpretation

    Information and Instruction

    Crowd Behaviours in Emergencies

    Evacuation guidance

    Emergency Signs


    Evacuation Assembly Areas

    Actions within the assembly area

    Post-emergency recovery phase

    When to re-open the venue

    Staff training

    Emergency Drills

    Equipment Testing


    References and Bibliography

    Chapter twelve. Incident Reporting & Investigation

    Chapter Objectives

    Incident Investigation Processes

    Incident protocols


    Gathering information

    Investigating the Incident Cause

    Causal analysis tree model of an investigation

    Incident Report

    Post Event Hazard Control Review and Report

    Recording issues


    Revising plans and procedures


    Case Studies



    Peter Wynn-Moylan is a Lecturer on Special Events and Conventions Management at the School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Australia. He has had a 40-year career in event management covering all aspects of the industry.

    This book is an immensely readable and highly practical guide to the increasingly important topic of event hazard and risk management. It contains a wealth of information and ideas, protocols and policies, seamlessly combining theory and best practice. It will be an invaluable guide for event practitioners and an excellent overview of the subject for events management students and academics.

    Tony Rogers, Managing Director, Tony Rogers Conference & Event Services, United Kingdom


    This is an excellent book.  The author writes in a clear and precise style. He touches on numerous areas that must be of importance for anyone doing event risk management.  The book covers a wide range of topics from terrorism to crime, from suicide attacks to protecting open spaces.  I highly recommend this book to anyone interested in this field. It is an asset to both the practitioner and to the scholar.

    Peter Tarlow, President and Founder, Tourism & More, United States of America