Rock Blasting: Effects and Operations, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Rock Blasting

Effects and Operations, 1st Edition

By Pijush Pal Roy

CRC Press

380 pages

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Paperback: 9780415372305
pub: 2005-06-23
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This book is a unique supplement to contemporary scientific literature on rock blasting technology. It encapsulates theoretical and practical aspects of drilling and blasting techniques used in both surface and subterranean excavations connected with civil as well as mining activities. Case studies are presented to illustrate correlations between theoretical calculations and empirical findings. It also summarizes the results of research carried out by the Blasting Department of the Central Mining Research Institute since its inception in the year 1970. It contains fifteen extensive chapters covering statistical methods, design parameters, rock breakage mechanism, structural damage, fragmentation, emerging techniques, surface and sub-surface blasting methodologies, safety and environmental aspects, explosive characteristics and modern initiating devices.

Table of Contents


1 Statistical Approaches and Useful Mathematical Formulae

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Statistical Analysis of Field Data

1.3 Statistical Method and Their Physical Interpretations

1.4 Important Mathematical Formulae

1.5 Summary

2 Terms and Parameters Influencing Mine and Ground Excavations

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Parameters Related to Explosive Properties

2.3 Parameters Related to Geomechanical Properties of Rock Mass

2.4 Parameters Related to Blast Geometry

2.5 Parameters Related to Initiation Pattern

2.6 Terms and Parameters Associated with Drilling and Blasting

3 Detonation Principle and Rock Breakage Mechanism

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Basic Introduction of High and Low Explosives

3.3 Principle of Detonation and Breakage

3.4 Rock Breakage

3.5 Formation of Seismic Waves

3.6 Shock Energy

3.7 Gas Energy

3.8 Fracturing by Release of Load

3.9 Gas Expansion

3.10 Reflection Breakage

4 Strength of Explosives – Theoretical Derivation and Laboratory Determinations

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Strength of Explosives

4.2 Laboratory Determination of Explosive Energy

4.3 Theoretical Determination of Energy Release

4.4 Calculation of Heat of Explosion

4.5 Ideal Mixture of ANFO and Fuel Oil

4.6 Partition of Explosive Energy

5 Prediction, Control and Damage thresholds of Ground Vibration from Opencast Blasting

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Generation and Propagation of Ground Vibration from Opencast Blasting

5.3 Commonly Used Blast Vibration Predictors

5.4 Geometrical Spreading

5.5 Inelastic Attenuation or Damping

5.6 Inelastic Attenuation Factor

5.7 Values of Empirical Constants for Various Rock Masses

5.8 CMRI Predictor Equation

5.9 Mixed Analytical-Empirical Model

5.10 Confidence Envelopes

5.11 Threshold Values of Ground Vibrations for Structures

5.12 Conclusions

6 Structural Response and Damage Criteria for Safety of Surface Structures

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Damage Prevention Criteria for Structures

6.3 Formation of low frequency vibrations

6.4 Damage Studies Through Test Structures

6.5 Field Studies on Residential and Industrial Structures

6.6 Effect of Repeated Blasting

6.7 Vibration Response of Restrained Pipelines

6.8 Discussions

6.9 Conclusions

7 Influence of Blasting on Surface Structures and Underground Workings

7.1 Surface Blasting – Underground Effects

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 Blast Vibrations

7.1.3 Effect of Rock Quality

7.1.4 Damage Classification

7.1.5 Blast Damage Index (BDI)

7.1.6 Case Studies

7.2 Underground Blasting – Surface Effects

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Problems Related to Underground Blasting

7.2.3 Factors Affecting Ground Vibration

7.2.4 Structural Response

7.2.5 Findings of Investigation

7.3 Underground Blasting – Underground Effects

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Effect of Vibration on Parting between Two Contiguous Seam Workings

7.3.3 Comparative Study of Effect of Blasting with Machine Cut, Auger Holes and Blasting off the Solid

7.3.4 Air Overpressures in the Underground Workings

7.3.5 Zone of Disturbance Caused by Blasting

7.4 Conclusions

8 Blast Monitoring and Characterization

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sensor Setting

8.3 Sensor Types

8.4 What Kind of Sensor should be used?

8.5 Richter Scale versus PPV

8.6 Approach of Tracking Blast Vibrations

8.7 Peak Particle Velocity versus Strain

8.8 Low Frequency Response

8.9 Summary Analysis of Vibration Risks in U/G Works

9 Ringhole Blasting in Coal in Blasting Gallery Panels

9.1 Introduction

9.2 General Description

9.3 Prerequisites of BG

9.4 Conditions before Commencement of Extraction

9.5 Advantages of BG method

9.6 Limitations

9.7 Drilling and Blasting Practices in BG Method

9.8 Case Studies

9.9 Fragmentation Study at GDK-10 Incline Mine

9.10 Case Study at GDK-8 Incline Mine

9.11 Energy-based Vibration Predictor Equations

9.12 Critical Convergence

9.13 Prediction of Roof Fall

9.14 Blast Damage Index (BDI)

9.15 Suggested Design Patterns and Guidelines

9.16 Conclusions

10 Rock Fragmentation and Assessment

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Indian Coal Mining Scenario

10.3 Fragmentation Assessment Methods

10.4 Results of CMRI Investigations

10.5 Charge Factor

10.6 Blast Design for Heterogeneous Strata

10.7 Fragmentation Prediction Models

10.8 Drilling and Blasting Cost Assessment

10.9 Case Studies

10.10 Fragmentation Cost Assessment

10.11 Effect of Initiation Timing

10.12 Pattern Constructions and Muckpile Shape

10.13 Effects of Fragmentation on Subsystems

10.14 Determination of Face Orientation

10.15 Design Patterns for Non-coal Deposits

10.16 Computer Models of Fragmentation Prediction

10.17 Conclusion

11 Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Blasting

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Human Response to Blast Induced Vibrations

11.3 Human Reaction to the Effect of Blasting

11.4 Air blast and Associated Annoyance

11.5 Flyrock – Occurrence and Control

11.6 Blasting in Underground Coal Mines

11.7 Blasting Procedures in Hot Holes

11.8 Measurement of Dust Clouds

11.9 Remedial Measures: General Guidelines

12 Emerging Blasting Techniques

12.1 Air-decking Principle

12.1.1 Introduction

12.1.2 Theory of Air-deck Blasting

12.1.3 Breakage Process in Air-deck Blasting

12.1.4 Usage of Air-decking in Presplit Blasting

12.1.5 Conclusions

12.2 Baby-Decking Technique

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 Scientific Identification of the Problem

12.2.3 Baby-decking

12.2.4 Conclusion

12.3 Segregation Blasting

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Mechanism of Segregation Blasting

12.3.3 Air-Drag

12.3.4 Law of Resistance

12.3.5 Correction for Air-drag

12.3.6 Case study

12.3.7 Experimental trials

12.3.8 Conclusion

12.4 Additives in ANFO for Optimum Blasting

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 Scientific Background

12.4.3 Detonation Velocity and Pressure of ANFO/Sawdust Mixture

12.4.4 Properties and Chemical Reaction of ANFO/Sawdust Mixture

12.4.5 Procedure of Mixing Sawdust with ANFO

12.4.6 Experimental Blasts

12.4.7 Observation

12.4.8 Conclusions

12.5 Induced Caving by Blasting

12.5.1. Introduction

12.5.2 What is Induced Blasting?

12.5.3 Results of Strata and Gas Monitoring

12.5.4 Design Patterns

12.5.5 Fragment Size Analysis

12.5.6 Software Developed

12.5.7 Conclusion

12.6. Blast Closure

12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 Reasons for Closure

12.6.3 Closure Planning

12.6.4 Methods of Closure

12.6.5 Conclusion

12.7 Demolition Blasting

12.7.1 Introduction

12.7.2 Basic Design Patterns

12.7.3 Demolition of Piers

12.7.4 Conclusion

13 Rock Excavation by Non-explosive Methods

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Acconex: Non-Explosive Demolishing Compound

13.3 Capsuled Compressed Gas Cartridges

13.4 Mechanical Methods

13.5 Electrical Methods

13.6 Liquid Jet Systems

13.7 Expansive Mortar

13.8 Surface Miner

13.9 Penetrating Cone Fracture

13.10 Plasma Blasting

13.11 Conclusions

14 Blasting in Surface and Subsurface Hard Rocks

14.1 Blasting in Dimension Stone Quarrying

14.1.1 Introduction

14.1.2 Traditional Methods

14.1.3 Presplitting Mechanism

14.1.4 Dimension Stone Quarries

14.1.5 Conclusion

14.2 Blasting in Himalayan Rocks

14.2.1 Introduction

14.2.2 Rock-Geologic Parameters

14.2.3 Effects of Blast Vibration on Rock Masses and Slopes

14.2.4 Blast Pattern

14.2.5 Ground Vibration Monitoring

14.2 6 Vibrations from Non-Blasting Events

14.2.7 Blast Design Patterns for Safe and Optimal Excavation

14.2.8 Drilling Pattern

14.2.9 Charge Factor and Initiation Sequences

14.2.10 Boulder Blasting

14.2.11 Concluding Remarks and Guidelines

14.3 Slope Failure Due to Unscientific Quarrying

14.3.1 South Hlimen Quarry

14.3.2 Conclusion

14.4 Underground Metal Mining

14.4.1 Introduction

14.4.2 Mining Methods with Vertical Crater Retreat (VCR) Stoping

14.4.3 Large Diameter Long Blastholes ‘LBH’ (115 mm and above)

14.4.4 Relationship Between Length of Charge and Diameter

14.4.5 Intermediate Stemming

14.4.6 Initiation Sequence

14.4.7 Case Study (Khetri Copper Mine)

14.4.8 Conclusions

14.5 Underwater Blasting

15 Performance Evaluation of Explosives and Accessories

15.1 Performance Test of Explosives

15.1.1 Introduction

15.1.2 Explosive Ratings

15.1.3 Mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil

15.1.4 Conclusion

15.2 Scattering in Delay Timing of Delay Detonator

15.2.1 Introduction

15.2.2 Winzer Index

15.2.3 Estimation of Initiation Gap

15.2.4 Thermal Behaviour of Commercial Explosives

15.2.5 Conclusions

15.3 Non-electric Initiating Devices

15.3.1 Introduction

15.3.2 Raydet DTH and TLD

15.3.3 EXEL System

15.3.4 Study of Component Scatter

15.3.5 Probability Calculations

15.3.6 Observations

15.3.7 Conclusion

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About the Author

Dr. P. Pal Roy is a Deputy Director and Scientist-in-Charge of the Blasting Department of the Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad, India. He is the inventor of CMRI Vibration Predictor Equation, Burden-Spacing Equations and Fragmentation Analyzing Scale besides establishing a number of CMRI standard and guidelines related to blasting methodology and applications. Recently, he has been associated with two S&T Projects funded by the Ministry of Coal and Mines and Defence Terrain Research laboratory, DRDO, Government of India.

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