Rock Blasting : Effects and Operations book cover
1st Edition

Rock Blasting
Effects and Operations

ISBN 9780415372305
Published February 28, 2005 by CRC Press
360 Pages

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Book Description

This book is a unique supplement to contemporary scientific literature on rock blasting technology. It encapsulates theoretical and practical aspects of drilling and blasting techniques used in both surface and subterranean excavations connected with civil as well as mining activities. Case studies are presented to illustrate correlations between theoretical calculations and empirical findings. It also summarizes the results of research carried out by the Blasting Department of the Central Mining Research Institute since its inception in the year 1970. It contains fifteen extensive chapters covering statistical methods, design parameters, rock breakage mechanism, structural damage, fragmentation, emerging techniques, surface and sub-surface blasting methodologies, safety and environmental aspects, explosive characteristics and modern initiating devices.

Table of Contents


1 Statistical Approaches and Useful Mathematical Formulae
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statistical Analysis of Field Data
1.3 Statistical Method and Their Physical Interpretations
1.4 Important Mathematical Formulae
1.5 Summary

2 Terms and Parameters Influencing Mine and Ground Excavations
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Parameters Related to Explosive Properties
2.3 Parameters Related to Geomechanical Properties of Rock Mass
2.4 Parameters Related to Blast Geometry
2.5 Parameters Related to Initiation Pattern
2.6 Terms and Parameters Associated with Drilling and Blasting

3 Detonation Principle and Rock Breakage Mechanism
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Basic Introduction of High and Low Explosives
3.3 Principle of Detonation and Breakage
3.4 Rock Breakage
3.5 Formation of Seismic Waves
3.6 Shock Energy
3.7 Gas Energy
3.8 Fracturing by Release of Load
3.9 Gas Expansion
3.10 Reflection Breakage

4 Strength of Explosives – Theoretical Derivation and Laboratory Determinations
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Strength of Explosives
4.2 Laboratory Determination of Explosive Energy
4.3 Theoretical Determination of Energy Release
4.4 Calculation of Heat of Explosion
4.5 Ideal Mixture of ANFO and Fuel Oil
4.6 Partition of Explosive Energy

5 Prediction, Control and Damage thresholds of Ground Vibration from Opencast Blasting
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Generation and Propagation of Ground Vibration from Opencast Blasting
5.3 Commonly Used Blast Vibration Predictors
5.4 Geometrical Spreading
5.5 Inelastic Attenuation or Damping
5.6 Inelastic Attenuation Factor
5.7 Values of Empirical Constants for Various Rock Masses
5.8 CMRI Predictor Equation
5.9 Mixed Analytical-Empirical Model
5.10 Confidence Envelopes
5.11 Threshold Values of Ground Vibrations for Structures
5.12 Conclusions

6 Structural Response and Damage Criteria for Safety of Surface Structures
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Damage Prevention Criteria for Structures
6.3 Formation of low frequency vibrations
6.4 Damage Studies Through Test Structures
6.5 Field Studies on Residential and Industrial Structures
6.6 Effect of Repeated Blasting
6.7 Vibration Response of Restrained Pipelines
6.8 Discussions
6.9 Conclusions

7 Influence of Blasting on Surface Structures and Underground Workings
7.1 Surface Blasting – Underground Effects
7.1.1 Introduction
7.1.2 Blast Vibrations
7.1.3 Effect of Rock Quality
7.1.4 Damage Classification
7.1.5 Blast Damage Index (BDI)
7.1.6 Case Studies
7.2 Underground Blasting – Surface Effects
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 Problems Related to Underground Blasting
7.2.3 Factors Affecting Ground Vibration
7.2.4 Structural Response
7.2.5 Findings of Investigation
7.3 Underground Blasting – Underground Effects
7.3.1 Introduction
7.3.2 Effect of Vibration on Parting between Two Contiguous Seam Workings
7.3.3 Comparative Study of Effect of Blasting with Machine Cut, Auger Holes and Blasting off the Solid
7.3.4 Air Overpressures in the Underground Workings
7.3.5 Zone of Disturbance Caused by Blasting
7.4 Conclusions

8 Blast Monitoring and Characterization
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Sensor Setting
8.3 Sensor Types
8.4 What Kind of Sensor should be used?
8.5 Richter Scale versus PPV
8.6 Approach of Tracking Blast Vibrations
8.7 Peak Particle Velocity versus Strain
8.8 Low Frequency Response
8.9 Summary Analysis of Vibration Risks in U/G Works

9 Ringhole Blasting in Coal in Blasting Gallery Panels
9.1 Introduction
9.2 General Description
9.3 Prerequisites of BG
9.4 Conditions before Commencement of Extraction
9.5 Advantages of BG method
9.6 Limitations
9.7 Drilling and Blasting Practices in BG Method
9.8 Case Studies
9.9 Fragmentation Study at GDK-10 Incline Mine
9.10 Case Study at GDK-8 Incline Mine
9.11 Energy-based Vibration Predictor Equations
9.12 Critical Convergence
9.13 Prediction of Roof Fall
9.14 Blast Damage Index (BDI)
9.15 Suggested Design Patterns and Guidelines
9.16 Conclusions

10 Rock Fragmentation and Assessment
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Indian Coal Mining Scenario
10.3 Fragmentation Assessment Methods
10.4 Results of CMRI Investigations
10.5 Charge Factor
10.6 Blast Design for Heterogeneous Strata
10.7 Fragmentation Prediction Models
10.8 Drilling and Blasting Cost Assessment
10.9 Case Studies
10.10 Fragmentation Cost Assessment
10.11 Effect of Initiation Timing
10.12 Pattern Constructions and Muckpile Shape
10.13 Effects of Fragmentation on Subsystems
10.14 Determination of Face Orientation
10.15 Design Patterns for Non-coal Deposits
10.16 Computer Models of Fragmentation Prediction
10.17 Conclusion

11 Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Blasting
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Human Response to Blast Induced Vibrations
11.3 Human Reaction to the Effect of Blasting
11.4 Air blast and Associated Annoyance
11.5 Flyrock – Occurrence and Control
11.6 Blasting in Underground Coal Mines
11.7 Blasting Procedures in Hot Holes
11.8 Measurement of Dust Clouds
11.9 Remedial Measures: General Guidelines

12 Emerging Blasting Techniques
12.1 Air-decking Principle
12.1.1 Introduction
12.1.2 Theory of Air-deck Blasting
12.1.3 Breakage Process in Air-deck Blasting
12.1.4 Usage of Air-decking in Presplit Blasting
12.1.5 Conclusions
12.2 Baby-Decking Technique
12.2.1 Introduction
12.2.2 Scientific Identification of the Problem
12.2.3 Baby-decking
12.2.4 Conclusion
12.3 Segregation Blasting
12.3.1 Introduction
12.3.2 Mechanism of Segregation Blasting
12.3.3 Air-Drag
12.3.4 Law of Resistance
12.3.5 Correction for Air-drag
12.3.6 Case study
12.3.7 Experimental trials
12.3.8 Conclusion
12.4 Additives in ANFO for Optimum Blasting
12.4.1 Introduction
12.4.2 Scientific Background
12.4.3 Detonation Velocity and Pressure of ANFO/Sawdust Mixture
12.4.4 Properties and Chemical Reaction of ANFO/Sawdust Mixture
12.4.5 Procedure of Mixing Sawdust with ANFO
12.4.6 Experimental Blasts
12.4.7 Observation
12.4.8 Conclusions
12.5 Induced Caving by Blasting
12.5.1. Introduction
12.5.2 What is Induced Blasting?
12.5.3 Results of Strata and Gas Monitoring
12.5.4 Design Patterns
12.5.5 Fragment Size Analysis
12.5.6 Software Developed
12.5.7 Conclusion
12.6. Blast Closure
12.6.1 Introduction
12.6.2 Reasons for Closure
12.6.3 Closure Planning
12.6.4 Methods of Closure
12.6.5 Conclusion
12.7 Demolition Blasting
12.7.1 Introduction
12.7.2 Basic Design Patterns
12.7.3 Demolition of Piers
12.7.4 Conclusion

13 Rock Excavation by Non-explosive Methods
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Acconex: Non-Explosive Demolishing Compound
13.3 Capsuled Compressed Gas Cartridges
13.4 Mechanical Methods
13.5 Electrical Methods
13.6 Liquid Jet Systems
13.7 Expansive Mortar
13.8 Surface Miner
13.9 Penetrating Cone Fracture
13.10 Plasma Blasting
13.11 Conclusions

14 Blasting in Surface and Subsurface Hard Rocks
14.1 Blasting in Dimension Stone Quarrying
14.1.1 Introduction
14.1.2 Traditional Methods
14.1.3 Presplitting Mechanism
14.1.4 Dimension Stone Quarries
14.1.5 Conclusion
14.2 Blasting in Himalayan Rocks
14.2.1 Introduction
14.2.2 Rock-Geologic Parameters
14.2.3 Effects of Blast Vibration on Rock Masses and Slopes
14.2.4 Blast Pattern
14.2.5 Ground Vibration Monitoring
14.2 6 Vibrations from Non-Blasting Events
14.2.7 Blast Design Patterns for Safe and Optimal Excavation
14.2.8 Drilling Pattern
14.2.9 Charge Factor and Initiation Sequences
14.2.10 Boulder Blasting
14.2.11 Concluding Remarks and Guidelines
14.3 Slope Failure Due to Unscientific Quarrying
14.3.1 South Hlimen Quarry
14.3.2 Conclusion
14.4 Underground Metal Mining
14.4.1 Introduction
14.4.2 Mining Methods with Vertical Crater Retreat (VCR) Stoping
14.4.3 Large Diameter Long Blastholes ‘LBH’ (115 mm and above)
14.4.4 Relationship Between Length of Charge and Diameter
14.4.5 Intermediate Stemming
14.4.6 Initiation Sequence
14.4.7 Case Study (Khetri Copper Mine)
14.4.8 Conclusions
14.5 Underwater Blasting

15 Performance Evaluation of Explosives and Accessories
15.1 Performance Test of Explosives
15.1.1 Introduction
15.1.2 Explosive Ratings
15.1.3 Mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil
15.1.4 Conclusion
15.2 Scattering in Delay Timing of Delay Detonator
15.2.1 Introduction
15.2.2 Winzer Index
15.2.3 Estimation of Initiation Gap
15.2.4 Thermal Behaviour of Commercial Explosives
15.2.5 Conclusions
15.3 Non-electric Initiating Devices
15.3.1 Introduction
15.3.2 Raydet DTH and TLD
15.3.3 EXEL System
15.3.4 Study of Component Scatter
15.3.5 Probability Calculations
15.3.6 Observations
15.3.7 Conclusion

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Dr. P. Pal Roy is a Deputy Director and Scientist-in-Charge of the Blasting Department of the Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad, India. He is the inventor of CMRI Vibration Predictor Equation, Burden-Spacing Equations and Fragmentation Analyzing Scale besides establishing a number of CMRI standard and guidelines related to blasting methodology and applications.  Recently, he has been associated with two S&T Projects funded by the Ministry of Coal and Mines and Defence Terrain Research laboratory, DRDO, Government of India.