1st Edition

Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism

Edited By András Sajó, Renáta Uitz, Stephen Holmes Copyright 2022
    1024 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    1024 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge Handbook of IIliberalism is the first authoritative reference work dedicated to illiberalism as a complex social, political, cultural, legal, and mental phenomenon.

    Although illiberalism is most often discussed in political and constitutional terms, its study cannot be limited to such narrow frames. This Handbook comprises sixty individual chapters authored by an internationally recognized group of experts who present perspectives and viewpoints from a wide range of academic disciplines. Chapters are devoted to different facets of illiberalism, including the history of the idea and its competitors, its implications for the economy, society, government and the international order, and its contemporary iterations in representative countries and regions.

    The Routledge Handbook of IIliberalism will form an important component of any library's holding; it will be of benefit as an academic reference, as well as being an indispensable resource for practitioners, among them journalists, policy makers and analysts, who wish to gain an informed understanding of this complex phenomenon.

    Part 1: Theoretical perspectives

    1. The antiliberal idea

    Stephen Holmes

    2. The history of illiberalism

    Helena Rosenblatt

    3. Illiberalism and opposition to the Enlightenment

    Graeme Garrard

    4. Contemporary Christian criticism of liberalism

    Gladden Pappin

    5. Left and New Left critiques of liberalism

    Michael C. Behrent

    6. Conservativism as illiberalism

    Andy Hamilton

    7. Asian values, Confucianism, and illiberal constitutions

    Wen-Chen Chang

    8. A theory of illiberal democracy

    Ulrich Wagrandl

    Part 2: Forms of illiberal government

    9. Illiberal regime types

    Nenad Dimitrijevic

    10. Hybrid regimes

    Leonardo Morlino

    11. Theocracy

    Ran Hirschl

    12. Authoritarian structures and trends in consolidated democracies

    Helena Alviar García and Günter Frankenberg

    Part 3: Ideas and Forces Fuelling Illiberalism

    13. The ideational core of democratic illiberalism

    Ruzha Smilova

    14. The people in ancient times and the rise of ’popularism’

    Claudia Moatti and Christel Müller

    15. The illiberal potential of the people

    Zoran Oklopcic

    16. Identity, narratives and nationalism

    Mabel Berezin

    17. Illiberalism and national sovereignty

    Neil Walker

    18. Populism and illiberalism

    Paul Blokker

    19. Illiberalism and the multicultural backlash

    Rita Chin

    20. Illiberal democracy and the politicization of immigration

    Leila Hadj Abdou

    21. Gender and illiberalism

    Andrea Pető

    22. Illiberalism and Islam

    Aziz Z. Huq

    Part 4: Illiberal practices

    23. Illiberal practices

    Marlies Glasius

    24. Surveillance in the illiberal state

    Steven Feldstein

    25. Media control and post-truth communication

    Eileen Culloty and Jane Suiter

    26. Illiberal practices and the management of protest and dissent

    Michael Hamilton

    27. The body of the nation: Illiberalism and gender

    Susanna Mancini and Nausica Palazzo

    Part 5: Government and governance

    28. The myth of the illiberal democratic constitution

    David Landau

    29. Constitutional practices in times ’after liberty’

    Renáta Uitz

    30. Parliaments in an Era of Illiberal Executives

    David Schneiderman

    31. Political parties, elections, and pernicious polarization in the rise of illiberalism

    Jennifer McCoy and Murat Somer

    32. The plebiscite in modern democracy

    Samuel Issacharoff and J. Colin Bradley

    33. Illiberal constitutionalism and the judiciary

    Mirosław Wyrzykowski and Michal Ziółkowski

    34. Illiberalism and the rule of law

    Martin Krygier

    35. Emergencies and illiberalism

    Alan Greene

    36. Illiberalism of military regimes

    Nam Kyu Kim

    37. Towards a post-liberal approach to political ordering

    Philipp Lottholz

    Part 6: Economy, society and psychology

    38. The social requisites of illiberalism

    Gábor Scheiring

    39. The psychological construction of the illiberal subject

    Frank Furedi

    40. The psychology of authoritarianism and support for illiberal policies and parties

    Stanley Feldman, Vittorio Mérola and Justin Dollman

    41. Illiberal politics and group-based needs for recognition and dominance

    Bjarki Gronfeldt, Aleksandra Cichocka, Marta Marchlewska, and Aleksandra Cislak

    42. Illiberal economic policies

    László Csaba

    43. Economic Consequences of Illiberalism in Eastern Europe

    Paula Ganga

    Part 7: Regional and national variations

    44. Asia’s illiberal governments

    Tom Ginsburg

    45. Cultural sources and institutional practice of authoritarianism in China

    Hongyi Lai

    46. The intertwining of liberalism and illiberalism in India

    Arun K. Thiruvengadam

    47. Indonesia’s ‘third-wave’ democratic model?

    Abdil Mughis Mudhoffir and Vedi R. Hadiz

    48. Latin America breathing: Liberalism and illiberalism, once and again

    Roberto Gargarella

    49. From antiestablishmentarianism to Bolsonarism in Brazil

    Rafael Mafei, Thomas Bustamante, Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer

    50. The Balkans

    Dimitri A. Sotiropoulos

    51. Illiberalism in East Central Europe

    Gábor Halmai

    52. The illiberal challenge in the European Union

    Yves Bertoncini and Dominique Reynié

    53. Turkey as a model of Muslim authoritarianism?

    Halil Ibrahim Yenigun

    Part 8: Global perspectives

    54. Illiberalism and human rights

    Marie-Luisa Frick

    55. Free trade in peril

    Michael Lee

    56. International sources of democratic backsliding

    Anna Meyerrose

    The crisis of liberal world order

    Elias Götz

    Part 9: Sources of resistance

    58. The weaknesses of illiberal regimes

    Benjamín García-Holgado and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán

    59. Civil society, crisis exposure and resistance strategies

    Nicole Bolleyer

    60. Politics after the normalization of shamelessness

    Benjamin Arditi

    Part 10: Themes for future research

    61. A compass for future research

    András Sajó and Renáta Uitz


    András Sajó is former Vice- President of the European Court of Human rights. As a judge he dealt with cases of rights violation originating in illiberal shifts in many countries. His term ended by May 2017 and he is currently University Professor at Central European University (CEU), Budapest, where he teaches constitutional law and interdisciplinary courses on the Demise of Constitutionalism. He also runs a research program of the same name. Before his judicial activity he was involved in public law projects in countries in the process of transition to democracy and taught comparative law at Cardozo Law School, NYU Law School, and CEU.

    Renáta Uitz is Professor and Chair of the Comparative Constitutional Law program at Central European University, Budapest. Her teaching covers subjects in comparative constitutional law and human rights with special emphasis on the enforcement of constitutional rights. Theories and practices of good government, transition to and from constitutional democracy, questions of personal autonomy and equality, including religious liberty and sexual autonomy, are at the centre of her research interests.

    Stephen Holmes is Walter E. Meyer Professorship of Law at New York University. His research centres on the history and recent evolution of liberalism and antiliberalism in Europe, the 1787 Constitution as a blueprint for continental expansion, the near- impossibility of imposing rules of democratic accountability on the deep state, the traumatic legacy of 1989, and the diffi culty of combating jihadist terrorism within the bounds of the Constitution and the international laws of war. In 1988, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to complete a study of the theoretical foundations of liberal democracy. He was named a Carnegie Scholar in 2003– 2005 for his work on Russian legal reform. After receiving his PhD from Yale in 1976, Holmes taught briefl y at Yale and Wesleyan universities before becoming a member of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University in 1978. He later taught at Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and Princeton before joining the faculty at NYU School of Law in 2000.

    "An impressive and wide-ranging volume whose theme is deeply relevant for political theorists and practical politicians in both liberal and illiberal democracies worldwide."

    Susan Rose-Ackerman, Henry R. Luce Professor of Law and Political Science, Emeritus, Yale University

    "Almost everyone writing for this volume, not just the editors, seems committed to treating illiberalism as the concept that sheds the greatest light on the distinctive forms of authoritarianism or populism or ethnocentrism emerging in contemporary politics. Are they justified in doing so? Does their restricted focus pay off in greater insight into contemporary political problems? My short answer to these questions is yes."

    Bernard Yack, Society