1st Edition

Routledge Handbook of Transnational Terrorism

Edited By Nicolas Stockhammer Copyright 2024
    584 Pages 23 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This handbook provides contributions by some of the world-leading experts in the field on recent phenomena and trends in transnational terrorism.

    Based on the methodological approach of a trend-and-key factor analysis of transnational terrorism and processed on the virtual platform "Foresight Strategy Cockpit" (FSC), the volume seeks to examine what potential future variants of transnational terrorism may evolve. Focusing on the latest structural developments in the sphere of politically or religiously motivated violence, the handbook considers the tactical, strategic, and not least the systemic dimension of terrorism. Divided into seven thematic sections, the handbook’s contributions cover a wide range of issues, dealing among others with strategic and hybrid terrorism, the systemic dimension of extremist violence, prevalent actors, counter-narratives, the crime terror-nexus, the role of digitalization and the spiral dynamic between Islamist and right-wing terrorism. The expert contributions provide a condensed overview of current developments, structural linkages and important academic debates centering around transnational salafi-jihadi terrorism, but also right-wing terrorism and counter-terrorism. A key objective of the work is to make the effects of prevention/preemption, (de-) radicalization and (non-) intervention both transparent and assessable. As such, it contributes well-founded strategies, feasible solutions and options for policy-makers and counter-terrorism experts.

    This volume will be of great interest to students of terrorism and counter-terrorism, political violence and security studies.

    1. Introduction

    Nicolas Stockhammer

    PART I The Strategic and Systemic Dimension of Terrorism

    2. Strategic Terrorism

    Herfried Münkler

    3. Geopolitical Game Changers and their Impact on Global Terrorism

    Daniel Byman

    4. The Systemic Dimension of Jihadist Violence: A Root Cause Analysis of Jihadist Terrorism

    Alex P. Schmid

    5. Jihadist Violence: New Terrorist Actors/Groups Emerging - Who Will be the Key Players in the Next Decade

    Bruce Hoffman

    6. From Networks to Social Identity: A Dialectical Model of Terrorism

    Marc Sageman

    7. The Atomization of Political Violence

    Brian Michael Jenkins

    8. The Case of Hybrid Terrorism–Systemic Lessons from recent European Plots

    Nicolas Stockhammer

    PART II Technology and Radicalization

    9. The Emerging Terrorist Technological Landscape

    Gary A. Ackerman

    10. Online Territories of Terror: The Multi-Platform Communication Paradigm and the Information Ecology of the Web3 Era

    Nico Prucha / Ali Fisher

    11. The Virtualization of Terror: Violent Extremism on the Internet Today

    Charlie Winter / Blyth Crawford

    12. The Evolution of Hybrid Radicalization: From Small Group to Mass Phenomenon

    Sophia Moskalenko

    13. The Emergence of Decoupled Radicalization and Franchise Terrorist: McJIHAD

    Olivier Roy

    14. The Crime-Terror-Nexus in Europe and its Implication for Jihadist radicalization

    Peter Neumann

    15. Counter-Narratives

    Behnam Heidenreuter

    PART III Right-Wing Extremism and Stochastic Terrorism

    16. Ideological Polarization and Societal Disruption

    Herfried Münkler

    17. The Current and Future Threat Posed by Islamist and Right-Wing Extremist Terrorism in Europe

    Stefan Goertz

    18. Generation Z and Terrorism

    Carolin Görzig

    19. Stochastic Terrorism: Mass Media Escalation Against Victim Groups as a Radicalization Platform for Terrorist Individual Perpetrators?

    Karolin Schwarz

    20. The Heightened Threat of U.S. Domestic Terrorism

    Catrina Doxsee

    21. Right-wing Extremists and State Deniers in Europe: Current Narratives, Trends and Actors

    Stefan Goertz

    PART IV Forecast, Trends, Scenarios and Tactics

    22. How to Forecast and Predict Future Terrorist Warfare

    Joshua Sinai

    23. Recent Trends in International Terrorism and Their Impact on CT Ambitions

    James J.F. Forest

    24. Key Trends in Transnational Terrorism: A Software based Key Factor Foresight Analysis

    Nicolas Stockhammer

    25. Scenarios of Transnational Terrorism: Trends and Developments - A Fact-Based Threat Assessment

    Colin Clarke

    26. Foiled versus Launched Terror Plots: Some Lessons Learned

    Petter Nesser

    27. Hybrid Loans and Tactics of Jihadism: Will Hybridity Remain the Narrative of Convergent, Politically Motivated Violence?

    Dirk Freudenberg

    28. Terrorism and Hybrid Threats: Analyzing Common Characteristics and Constraints for Counter-Measures

    Giray Sadik

    PART V Political Islam, Jihadism, Psychology and Counter-Terrorism

    29. Legalistic Islam: The Transition from Political Islam to Jihadism

    Nina Scholz / Heiko Heinisch

    30. Jihadism and True Islam: Discourses and Realities

    Rüdiger Lohlker

    31. Jihadism in the West: A Post-Caliphate Transitory Phase

    Lorenzo Vidino

    32. Becoming a Jihadist: A Psychoanalytical Perspective

    Jean-Luc Vannier

    33. Understanding the Motivation of "Lone-Wolf" Terrorists: The "Bathtub" Model

    Boaz Ganor

    34. Evolving Perspectives on Psychopathology and Terrorism

    Randy Borum

    35. European Approaches to Risk Assessment of Terrorist Offenders

    Andrew Silke

    36. A Model for Countering Violent Extremism and Promoting Disengagement from Terrorism

    Joshua Sinai

    PART VI Covid-19, Resilience and Terrorism

    37. Crises and Catastrophes, Security and Resilience: On the Significance of Finding Definitions for Security Policy

    Herfried Münkler

    38. Covid-19 and Global Terrorism Pandemics

    Boaz Ganor

    39. The False Promise of Salafi-Jihadist: Rhetoric and the Response to Covid-19

    Seth G. Jones

    40. The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Reassessing the Evidence

    Sam Mullins

    41. A Legacy of Disorder, Desperation and Defiance: The Possible Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Future Course of Terrorism

    Brian Michael Jenkins

    42. Hybrid Jihad: A Trend Scenario for Transnational Terrorism

    Nicolas Stockhammer

    43. Terrorist Threats Post Covid-19

    Raffaello Pantucci

    PART VII Afghanistan, Al-Qaeda and Beyond

    44. The Security Situation in Afghanistan and the Implications for Global Terrorism

    Herfried Münkler

    45. Afghanistan under Taliban Rule: Consequences for Global Security and Terrorism Against the West

    Seth G. Jones

    46. Afghanistan after the Withdrawal of the West: The Taliban, al-Qaeda, and IS- K

    Guido Steinberg / Aljoscha Albrecht

    47. Global Jihad: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State’s Struggle for Power and Global Dominance

    Katherine Zimmerman

    48. Al-Qaeda - 20 years after 9/11

    Bruce Hoffman

    49. The Taliban-al-Qaeda Nexus: Brothers in Arms

    Nico Prucha / Ali Fisher


    Nicolas Stockhammer is Director of the Research Cluster “Counter-Terrorism, CVE (Countering Violent Extremism) and Intelligence” at Danube-University Krems (Austria).

    'The contributors are all important scholars. They thoroughly examine global terrorism in the last four decades focusing on the Islamic and right-wing groups but also deal with stochastic terrorism or the lone wolf form.'

    David C. Rapoport, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Founding Editor 'Terrorism & Political Violence'

    'A thoughtfully edited collection of articles by an impressive line-up of scholars. Readers will be hard pressed to find a wider range of ideas on terrorism in a single volume than this.'

    Thomas Hegghammer, Senior Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford