The Routledge Handbook of the Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development provides a cutting-edge, comprehensive overview of current trends, challenges and opportunities for metal and mineral production and use, in the context of climate change and the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda 2030.
Minerals and metals are used throughout the world in manufacturing, construction, infrastructure, production of electronics and consumer goods. Alongside this widespread use, extraction and processing of mineral resources take place in almost every nation at varying scales, both in developing countries and major developed nations. The chapters in this interdisciplinary handbook examine the international governance mechanisms regulating social, environmental and economic implications of mineral resource extraction and use. The original contributions, from a range of scholars, examine the relevance of the mining industry to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), reviewing important themes such as local communities Indigenous peoples, gender equality and fair trade, showing how mining can influence global sustainable development. The chapters are organised into three sections: Global Trends in Mineral Resources Consumption and Production; Technology, Minerals and Sustainable Development; and Management of Social, Environmental and Economic Issues in the Mining Industry.
This handbook will serve as an important resource for students and researchers of geology, geography, earth science, environmental studies, engineering, international development, sustainable development and business management, among others. It will also be of interest to professionals in governmental, international and non-governmental organisations that are working on issues of resource governance, environmental protection and social justice.
Table of Contents
Saleem H. Ali
Natalia Yakovleva and Edmund Nickless
PART I Global trends in mineral resources consumption and production: an overview
Judith A. Kinnaird and Edmund Nickless
1 Critical raw materials: an introduction
Judith A. Kinnaird and Paul A.M. Nex
2 Development of mineral supply and demand from 1950 to 2020: Cold War and consumerism
Mark Burnett, Steven E. Zhang, Yousef Ghorbani, Julie E. Bourdeau, Benedikt M. Steiner, James S.K. Barnet and Glen T. Nwaila
3 Current global patterns of consumption of non-energy minerals and metals: trends and challenges of life in a material world
Patrice Christmann, Elias T. Ayuk, Antonio M. A. Pedro and S. Vijay Kumar
4 Future mineral demand: climate change and materials for the energy transition
Gavin M. Mudd
5 Future mineral demand: the necessary transition toward sustainability
Patrice Christmann, Elias T. Ayuk, Antonio M. A. Pedro and S. Vijay Kumar
6 Current and future supply of minerals: technical, environmental and business issues
Karin E. Olson Hoal, Eric Pirard and Alan R. Butcher
7 Exploring for deeply buried ore deposits
Raymond J. Durrheim, Musa S.D. Manzi, Glen T. Nwaila and Susan J. Webb
8 Mining for a low-carbon economy: new technologies and integrated governance
Anja Berretta and Ross Harvey
9 The case for global cooperation concerning the sustainable management of mining and minerals
Ana Elizabeth Bastida
PART II Technology, minerals and sustainable development: an overview
Damien Giurco, Kazuyo Matsubae and Stephen Northey
10 Minerals for future low-and zero-CO2 energy and transport technologies
Simon M. Jowitt
11 Construction materials and sustainable development
Patrick Junior and Daniel M. Franks
12 Spatial-temporal views on urban construction material flow and stock towards sustainability
Hiroki Tanikawa, Jing Guo and Tomer Fishman
13 Soil remineralizer: a new route to sustainability for Brazil, a giant exporting agro-mineral commodities
Suzi Huff Theodoro, David A. C. Manning, Andreì Mundstock Xavier de Carvalho, Fabiane Rodrigues FerraÞo and Gustavo Rosa de Almeida
14 Urban mining of metals and minerals for a circular economy and the sustainable development goals
Wei-Qiang Chen and Xianlai Zeng
15 Resource and production technologies for scandium
Osamu Takeda and Toru H. Okabe
16 Advanced manufacturing and high-quality materials: phosphorus
Kazuyo Matsubae, Eiji Yamasue and Hisao Ohtake
PART III Management of social, environmental and economic issues in the mining industry: an overview
Maria Amélia Enriquez and Natalia Yakovleva
17 An evolving agenda for environmental, health, and safety management in mining
Luis E. Sánchez and Daniel M. Franks
18 Overlapping and interacting water and land risks in mining regions
Nadja C. Kunz, Laura J. Sonter and Chris J. Moran
19 Environmental transparency of global oil and gas companies: an independent comparative assessment
Alexey Yu. Knizhnikov, Evgeny A. Shvarts, Alexander Pakhalov, Natalia Rozhkova and Madeline McCann
20 Rethinking the social license to operate and community participation: the contribution of social impact assessment
Jacques Demajorovic and Viviane Pisano
21 Gender mainstreaming for sustainable mining in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities and challenges
Judy N. Muthuri, Willice O. Abuya and Luis D. Torres
22 Cooperatives as a centrepiece for formalizing small-scale mining in sub-Saharan Africa: rationale, benefits and limitations
Matondo Estrela Garcia Cardoso and Gavin Hilson
23 Making extractives work for sustainable development in resource-rich countries
Antonio M. A. Pedro
24 Mining cities and sustainable development
Maria Amélia Enriquez, Marcello Veiga and Jo.o Gustavo Gouveia Loureiro
25 Ethical supply chains of metals and minerals
Mary E. Bingham Chee
26 Civil society and mining: an era of expanded approaches and voices will accelerate SDG impacts
Cristina M. Villegas
27 Understanding and addressing ‘modern slavery’ in DRC-UK cobalt supply chains
James McQuilken, Zahra Shirgholami and Dylan McFarlane
28 Indigenous peoples and mining in the Circumpolar North: Canada, Finland, and Russia
Natalia Yakovleva, Ken Coates, Tanja Hoffmann, Tuyara Gavrilyeva and Nadezhda Stepanova
29 Mining and sustainable development – a project-level approach to identify opportunities for collaboration and innovation
Sarah Caven and Cassia Johnson
Natalia Yakovleva is Professor of Strategy at KEDGE Business School, France. Natalia holds a BSc in Economics and PhD in Environmental Studies. She specialises in corporate social responsibility, sustainable business and circular economy, and has published in the Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Cleaner Production, Journal of World Business and Nature.
Edmund Nickless, a geologist and a trainer, has worked extensively on mineral resource issues. He currently chairs the Resourcing Future Generations initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Until retirement, he was Executive Secretary of the Geological Society of London. Previously, he worked for the British Geological Survey and HMG Cabinet Office.
"This Handbook could not have come at a more opportune moment, when humankind faces the vital challenge of urgently creating climate-neutral and sustainable economic systems. Reliable and unhindered access to mineral raw materials is crucial to meet this challenge, and the authors guide readers across the many aspects of extracting and using natural resources, without running from sensitive issues like environmental, social and ethical implications—a must-read for those willing to drive sustainable development."
Vitor Correia, Past-President of the European Federation of Geologists and Secretary-General of the International Raw Materials Observatory.
"It’s about time! The grand challenge ahead for society to move from talking about decarbonization to actually making a sustainable world is how do you materially make it happen. The science and engineering have advanced to make much of vision of a sustainable society conceivable. The public discourse is moving towards a vision of such a future. But can we physically have the materials wherewithal to make it happen? Natalia Yakovleva and Edmund Nickless have brought together the leading minds to demonstrate this is not just a technical issue, nor is it just a social issue, but rather part of a complex ecosystem to enable us to meet the raw material needs in a sustainable way. The technical challenges and solutions are well documented in the handbook, but most importantly, the social science contributors address how this is not just a simple technical problem, but one that the social and human factors overprint, and often drive the successful implementation of developing raw materials not just for a sustainable future, but as a sustainably-aware process itself. This handbook brings all of the tools to transform the broader conversation of raw materials to the next level of actualization we need for a genuinely sustainable future."
Christopher M. Keane, Director, Geoscience Profession & Higher Education, American Geosciences Institute, Virginia, United States of America.
"Over the next two decades we will see dramatic changes in the requirements and supply of raw materials as we change our behaviours with respect to energy consumption and transport and their underpinning resources. This Routledge Handbook is an essential text for anyone in the minerals industry including, scientists, engineers, or economists and financial managers, and those concerned with the social aspects of the extractives industries."
John Ludden CBE, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, President of the International Union of Geological Sciences, IUGS.
"The Routledge Handbook of Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development, edited by Edmund Nickless and Natalia Yakovleva, challenges readers to take a systems view of the resource crisis that is developing in response to society’s move to a more sustainable, decarbonised economy. The Handbook acknowledges the gaps in understanding and lack of consensus around the role of the extractive industries in sustainable development. However, by bringing together such a diverse set of emerging and established authors, topics and viewpoints the Handbook itself fills a significant gap and provides a solid platform from which to initiate future dialogue for cooperative progress on this pressing issue."
Murray W. Hitzman, Director, Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geosciences (iCRAG), University College, Dublin, Ireland.
"A critical and timely guide full of important information for industry practitioners who continuously grapple with building a positive relationship between the extractives industry and the society through the lens of sustainable development."
Melba Kapesa Wasunna, External Affairs Manager, Base Titanium Ltd, Kenya.
"This Handbook is a one-stop shop to understand contemporary questions related to the life cycle of minerals, metals, and energy resources. It brings together authors with extensive experience in their respective fields covering critical technical, social, economic, environmental and governance topics related to the sector. The Handbook is relevant for its breadth and for discussing important issues related to the extractive industries' past, present and future challenges and opportunities. It also points to directions on how the sector can contribute to the betterment of societies. It is a valuable resource for academics, practitioners, managers and policy-makers."
André Xavier, Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.