Routledge Handbook of Citizenship in the Middle East and North Africa
This comprehensive Handbook gives an overview of the political, social, economic and legal dimensions of citizenship in the Middle East and North Africa from the nineteenth century to the present.
The terms citizen and citizenship are mostly used by researchers in an off-hand, self-evident manner. A citizen is assumed to have standard rights and duties that everyone enjoys. However, citizenship is a complex legal, social, economic, cultural, ethical and religious concept and practice. Since the rise of the modern bureaucratic state, in each country of the Middle East and North Africa, citizenship has developed differently. In addition, rights are highly differentiated within one country, ranging from privileged, underprivileged and discriminated citizens to non-citizens. Through its dual nature as instrument of state control, as well as a source of citizen rights and entitlements, citizenship provides crucial insights into state-citizen relations and the services the state provides, as well as the way citizens respond to these actions.
This volume focuses on five themes that cover the crucial dimensions of citizenship in the region:
- Historical trajectory of citizenship since the nineteenth century until independence
- Creation of citizenship from above by the state
- Different discourses of rights and forms of contestation developed by social movements and society
- Mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion
- Politics of citizenship, nationality and migration
Covering the main dimensions of citizenship, this multidisciplinary book is a key resource for students and scholars interested in citizenship, politics, economics, history, migration and refugees in the Middle East and North Africa.
Table of Contents
Foreword Nils A. Butenschøn Introduction Roel Meijer, James N. Sater and Zahra R. Babar SECTION 1. EMERGENCE OF MODERN CITIZENSHIP 1. Peace to those of Faith: Political Affiliation and Belonging in Classical Islamic Thought Omar Farahat 2. The Ottoman Citizen between Millet and Nation Bruce Masters 3. Citizenship and Nationality in the French Colonial Maghreb Jessica M. Marglin 4. Revolutionary Citizenship at the End of Empire Michelle U. Campos 5. Colonial citizenship? Producing Sectarianism in the Interwar Middle East Laura Robson 6. Citizenship and the Transition from Colonial to Authoritarian Pacts Roel Meijer SECTION 2. FORMATION OF CITIZENSHIP FROM ABOVE 7. Between Claims, Residence and Recognition: the Conceptual Unity of Jinsiyyah and Muwatanah Paul M. Esber 8. Muwatana, Exclusion and Politics of Belonging in Modernizing Monarchies: the Cases of Kuwait and Morocco/Western Sahara James N. Sater 9. Constitutions and Citizens: Rights in Law and Practice in Jordan and the Arab World Lillian Frost and Nathan J. Brown 10. The Egyptian Middle Class and the Nasserist Social Contract Relli Shechter 11. The Islamic Republic and Citizenship in Post-1979 Iran Shirin Saeidi 12. The Islamic State’s Construction of Citizenship Mathilde Becker Aarseth SECTION 3. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND FORMATION OF CITIZENSHIP FROM BELOW 13. The Communist Movement and Citizenship in Arab Countries Manfred Sing 14. New Islamist Movements and Concepts of Citizenship Emin Poljarevic 15. Striking for Rights? Workers’ Political Agency and Revolutionary Crisis in the Middle East Anne Alexander 16. The Politics of the Poor in the Middle East and North Africa: Between Contestation and Accommodation Cilja Harders 17. Human Rights Movements and the Promotion of Citizenship in MENA Fateh Azzam 18. The Ambiguity of Citizenship and the Quest for Rights in Morocco Driss Maghraoui SECTION 4. MECHANISM OF INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION 19. Domestication or Transformation? Modern Amazigh Identity in the Shadow of the Authoritarian State Bruce Maddy-Weitzman 20. The Struggle for Kurdish Citizenship Michael M. Gunter 21. Supremacy Unleashed: the Ongoing Erosion of Palestinian Citizenship in Israel Shira Robinson 22. Patriarchal Nationality Laws and Female Citizenship in the Middle East Rania Maktabi 23. Why his Photograph Was not Taken: Reconsidering Membership in Lebanon Nadia Sonneveld and Joseph Alagha 24. Trafficking in (non)-Citizenship in Kuwait and the UAE Zahra Albarazi and Yuona Kusmova 25. The Christians of the Middle East: from Arab Christians to Marginalized Minorities Heleen Murre-van den Berg 26. Citizenship and Political Participation in Post-Qaddafi Libya: The Long and Winding Road to a New Social Contract Suliman Ibrahim SECTION 5. MIGRATION AND REGULATION OF CITIZENSHIP AND NATIONALITY 27. Political Participation and the Middle East Migration State Gerasimos Tsourapos 28. Economic Migrants and Citizenship in the GCC Zahra R. Babar 29. The Middle East and North Africa and the Global Trend towards Multiple Citizenship Claire Beaugrand 30. Migration and Citizenship in Modern Turkey Rusen Yasar 31. Subjecthood and Citizenship in the Diaspora: Libyan and Syrian Voice before and after the Arab Spring Dana M. Moss 32. Tunisian Migration to the EU: A Tale of Asymmetry Françoise De Bel Air
Roel Meijer is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies at Radboud University, Nijmegen. He is a historian and has edited numerous volumes, including Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement (2009), The Muslim Brotherhood in Europe (2012), and (with Nils A. Butenschøn) The Crisis of Citizenship in the Arab World (2017) and The Middle East in Transition: The Centrality of Citizenship (2018).
James N. Sater is Associate Professor at the Department of International Relations at the University of Malta. He is the author of Morocco: Challenges to Tradition and Modernity (Routledge 2010/16) and Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco (Routledge 2007). He has worked on sectarianism, citizenship, electoral politics, gender, marginalisation and migration with a focus on North Africa and Arab Gulf monarchies.
Zahra R. Babar is Associate Director at CIRS at Georgetown University in Qatar. She has published several articles on citizenship, including "Enduring ‘Contested’ Citizenship in the Gulf Cooperation Council" in The Middle East in Transition: The Centrality of Citizenship (2018); "The ‘Enemy Within’: Citizenship-Stripping in the Post-Arab Spring GCC" in Middle East Journal (2017); and "The Cost of Belonging: Citizenship Construction in the State of Qatar" in Middle East Journal (2014). She served as editor for a special issue of the Middle East Journal titled "Citizenship" (2019).