This book offers the first comprehensive examination of Russia's Arctic strategy, ranging from climate change issues and territorial disputes to energy policy and domestic challenges. As the receding polar ice increases the accessibility of the Arctic region, rival powers have been manoeuvering for geopolitical and resource security. Geographically, Russia controls half of the Arctic coastline, 40 percent of the land area beyond the Circumpolar North, and three quarters of the Arctic population. In total, the sea and land surface area of the Russian Arctic is about 6 million square kilometres.
Economically, as much as 20 percent of Russia's GDP and its total exports is generated north of the Arctic Circle. In terms of resources, about 95 percent of its gas, 75 percent of its oil, 96 percent of its platinum, 90 percent of its nickel and cobalt, and 60 percent of its copper reserves are found in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions. Add to this the riches of the continental shelf, seabed, and waters, ranging from rare earth minerals to fish stocks. After a spike of aggressive rhetoric when Russia planted its flag in the Arctic seabed in 2007, Moscow has attempted to strengthen its position as a key factor in developing an international consensus concerning a region where its relative advantages are manifest, despite its diminishing military, technological, and human capacities.
Table of Contents
Translations of approximately sixty selections from China's twentieth-century human rights discourse, rendered into fluid, non-technical English. The documents are arranged chronologically and are presented in full wherever possible. Each selection is preceded by a brief introduction dealing with the author and the immediate context. To make the book even more user friendly, it also includes a glossary in which translations of key terms are linked to their Chinese equivalents.
"The book contains useful maps illustrating the discussions. It is very well written in an accessible manner for readers with various backgrounds. It can be recommended not only for experts and researchers of the Arctic region but also for a broader readership on Russian structural conditions and policies in geographical, demographical, spatial, military, economic and climate change matters. The multidisciplinary approach provides a thick analysis of recent key themes in the Arctic region as well as an excellent overview of contemporary Russia."
EKATERINA TARASOVA, So¨derto¨rn University