Safe Use of Chemicals: A Practical Guide, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Safe Use of Chemicals

A Practical Guide, 1st Edition

By T.S.S. Dikshith

CRC Press

312 pages | 1 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-08-21
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Description

Occupational workers frequently use, store, and dispose of toxic chemicals without knowing the possible consequences, both for the workplace and the environment. Improper use or misuse of chemical substances can result in health disorders, fatalities, or chemical disasters. Safe Use of Chemicals: A Practical Guide presents quick and comprehensive instruction to those who work with potentially dangerous substances and provides them with the information they need to avoid the hazards associated with handling these chemicals.

Extensive Information on Numerous Substances

Thoroughly referenced from a wide variety of sources, this book contains information on industrial solvents, pesticides, metals, air pollutants, toxic gases and drugs, as well as other substances. The information presented for each chemical substance is concise yet thorough and does not require advanced training to comprehend. For each chemical, the author provides the CAS number, IUPAC name, molecular formula, synonyms, uses and exposures, toxicity and health effects, exposure limits, and methods of proper storage and disposal. Tables and appendices are included where appropriate.

T.S.S. Dikshith is a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria Documents and the International Program on Chemical Safety and has worked in several laboratories in the United States, France, Germany, and Canada. By following the guidelines established in this text, those who work with chemical substances are able to minimize the risk of disaster and protect themselves and others from the toxic effects of the substances they deal with on a daily basis.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chemical Substances and Poisoning of Humans

General Safety Guidelines

References

Chemical Substances and Categorization

Introduction

Chemicals and Categorization

Industrial Solvents

Metals and Metal Compounds

Pesticides

Toxic Dust, Fumes, Gases, and Vapors

Fumes and Dust of Metals

Asphyxiates

Corrosive Substances

Irritants

Eye and Skin Irritants

Lung and Respiratory Irritants

Neurotoxic Chemicals

Oxidizing Agents

Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens

Chemicals and Fire Hazards

Conclusion

References

Elements of Toxicology and Chemical Safety

Introduction

Toxicology Studies

History of Toxicology

Branches of Toxicology

Types of Toxicological Studies

Acute Toxicity

Chronic Toxicity

Influencing Factors

Dose–Time Relationship

Routes of Exposure and Toxicity Tests

Parameters of Toxicity

Parameters and the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals and Drugs

Good Laboratory Practice and Regulations

Good Laboratory Practice

Toxicology Test Report

References

Signs and Symptoms of Toxicity

Industrial Solvents

Introduction

Solvents

Flammable and Combustible Solvents

Uses of Solvents

Exposure to Solvents

Drugs, Pharmaceutical Products, and Residual Solvents

Solvents and Precautions

Education and Training

Toxicity and Health Effects

Neurotoxicity

Solvent Syndrome and Fetal Defects

Workplace Controls and Work Practices

Occupational Exposure Limits

Solvents and Toxicity Profile

Conclusion

References

Classes of Different Chemical Substances and Solvents

Health Hazards of Solvents upon Inhalation

Metals and Metal Compounds

Introduction

Discovery of Metals

Different Metals

Metals and Alloys

Metal Poisoning and Symptoms

Conclusions

References

Metals and Health Disorders in Humans

Pesticides

Introduction

Global Development of Pesticides

Classifications of Pesticides

Uses of Pesticides

Toxicity of Pesticides

Signs and Symptoms of Toxicity

Pesticide Management

Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning

Approaches to Reduce Intentional and Suicidal Poisonings

The Insecticide Act (1968)

Regulations

Pesticides and Carcinogenicity

Conclusion

References

Global Development of Pesticides

Pesticide Poisoning—Mild, Moderate, and Severe

Pesticide Components, Signs of Toxicity, and Parts of the Body Affected

Behavioral and Nonbehavioral Changes Caused by Pesticide Exposure

Pesticides and Mammalian Toxicity

Pesticides and Hormone Disturbances in Mammals

Classification of Pesticide Toxicity

Organochlorinate Pesticides and Carcinogenicity

Classification of Pesticides and Carcinogenicity

Pesticides Listed in India as Carcinogens

Air Pollutants and Toxic Gases

Introduction

Sources of Pollutants and Health Effects

Air Pollutants

References

Chemical Substances and Carcinogenicity

Introduction

Carcinogens and Carcinogenesis

Classification of Carcinogens

Chemical Substances, Occupations, and Cancer

Children and Pesticide-Induced Cancer

References

Additional Reading

Known Human Carcinogens

Group B2—Probable Human Carcinogens

Group E—Evidence of Noncarcinogenicity for Humans 

Classification of Benign and Malignant Tumors in Mammals

Chemical Substances and Neurotoxicity

Introduction

Neurotoxicity

Industrial Chemicals and Neurotoxicity

Monomers

Neurotoxicity and Children

Symptoms of Neurotoxicity

Polyneuropathy

Encephalopathy

Neurotoxicants and Neonates

Conclusion

References

Chemical Substances and Neurotoxicity

Chemical Substances and Nephrotoxicity

Introduction

Chemical Substances and Renal Injury

Symptoms of Nephropathy

Metals and Nephrotoxicity

References

Conclusions

Chemical Safety Guidelines

Safe-Handling Guidelines

Minimize Exposure and Reduce Risks

Hygiene and Chemical Safety

Glossary

Appendices

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety