Safety Management: Near Miss Identification, Recognition, and Investigation, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Safety Management

Near Miss Identification, Recognition, and Investigation, 1st Edition

By Ron C. McKinnon

CRC Press

197 pages | 30 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-02-27
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Close calls, narrow escapes, or near hits. History has shown repeatedly that these "near-miss" incidents often precede loss producing events, but are largely ignored or go unreported because nothing (no injury, damage or loss) happened. Thus, many opportunities to prevent the accidents that the organization has not yet had are lost. Recognizing and reporting "near-miss" incidents can make a major difference to the safety of workers within organizations.

Supported by more than 30 years of international safety experience and research, Safety Management: Near Miss Identification, Recognition, and Investigation discusses the safety philosophy behind "near-miss" incidents and clearly demonstrates the accident sequence showing the Three Luck Factors that determine the outcome of the event. The author highlights the fortuity of the event and how a simple risk assessment can be used to identify the causes of the event and rectify them. He also explains the management functions of safety and how they relate to "near-miss" incidents.

  • Explains and reaffirms safety philosophies first proposed more than 80 years ago
  • Applies the technique of risk assessment on "near-miss" incidents to identify high potential loss events
  • Includes real-life examples of "near-miss" incidents to support the importance of "near-miss" recognition and investigation
  • Provides examples of reporting forms, report tracking and "near-miss" incident awareness training on

"Near-miss" incidents are truly the foundation of major injuries, the building blocks of accidents, and warning signs that loss is imminent. They can also form the impetus for proactive, preventative actions. This book explores how to implement a "near-miss" incident identification, recognition, investigation, and rectification program.

Table of Contents


Clearing the Confusion

Minor Injury Is Not a Near Miss Incident

Near Miss Incidents

Accidents versus Near Miss Incidents

Accidents, Near Miss Incidents, and Injuries

Definitions: Injuries and Diseases

Accident Sequence

A Measure of Safety


The Safety Philosophy behind Near Miss Incidents


Tracking Near Miss Incidents

Near Miss—or Near Hit?


Examples of Near Miss Incidents

Red Flags

A Gift

Precursors to Accidents

Heed the Warnings

High Potential for Loss

Facts about Near Miss Incidents

Contact (Energy Exchange) Types

Business Interruption

The Accident Ratios

The Accident Ratio Conclusion

Preventative Opportunities

Immediate Accident Causes

Traditional Research

Exchange of Energy and Contact

Injury, Damage, or Loss


Safety Management Functions That Relate to Near Miss Incidents


Management Leadership

Positive Behavior Reinforcement

What Is a Manager?

Basic Management Functions

Safety Management Principles Relating to Near Miss Incidents

Professional Safety Management Principles

Safety Management Principles

Safety Success viz-a-viz Management Leadership


Near Miss Incidents, Myths and Safety Paradigms

No Injury—No Accident (No Blood, No Foul)

Why Injuries Are Seen as "Safety"


Accident Ratios

Risk Assessment

Iceberg Effect

Near Miss Incidents Aren’t Important: A Paradigm

Injury-Free Culture

Near Miss Incidents Not Reported

Warnings in Advance

Luck Factors

Space Shuttle Columbia


Safety and Health Policies


Safety and Health Policy


Near Miss Incident Risk Management and Assessment


The Risk Management Process

Risk Assessment

Risk Control

Safety Management Control

Risk Ranking of Near Miss Incidents


Safety Auditing


Reasons for Audits

Benefits of Audits

How Does an Audit Work?

Who Should Conduct Audits?

The Audit Program

How to Do an Audit Inspection

Internationally Accepted Audit-Based Safety Systems


Near Miss Incident and Accident Recall



A Matter of Luck

Recalling the Near Miss Incident

Benefits of Near Miss Incident Recall

Benefits of Accident Recall

Precontact and Postcontact Activities


Methods of Recall

Major Loss Briefing

Safety Stand Down

Accident Recall Aids

Acting upon Near Miss Incident Recall

Risk Assessment


How to Motivate for Safety



Create the Right Environment

The Hawthorne Effect

Foundation of Motivationxi Contents

The Ten Rules of Safety Motivation

Pushing the String

Implementing a Near Miss Incident System: Introduction

How to Make It Happen


Recognizing Reported Safe Work

Safety Suggestions and Recommendations






No Names

Resistance to Change

Barriers to Reporting

Long-Time Employee

Implementing a Near Miss Incident Reporting System: Implementaion

Setting the Standard

What Are Critical Safety and Health System Elements?

Safety and Health Management System (Program)

Implementing a Near Miss Incident Reporting System: Follow Up


Reporting System Follow Up

Main Requirements


Investigating High Potential Near Miss Incidents

No Difference


Accident/Near Miss Incident Investigation Facts

Postcontact versus Precontact

Potential Losses and Risk Ranking of Probabilities

Benefits of Accident and Near Miss Incident Investigation

Principle of Multiple Causes

Principle of Definition

The Golden Rule of Accident and Near Miss Incident Investigation

Who Should Investigate?

Investigation Form

Near Miss Incident/Accident Investigation Procedure

Lost Opportunities



Safety in the Shadows

Summary of the Book




About the Originator


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety