1st Edition

Safety and Reliability of Bridge Structures

Edited By Khaled Mahmoud Copyright 2009

    Recent surveys of the U.S. infrastructure’s condition have rated a staggering number of bridges structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. While not necessarily unsafe, a structurally deficient bridge must be posted for weight and have limits for speed, due to its deteriorated structural components. Bridges with old design features that cannot safely accommodate current traffic volumes, and vehicle sizes and weights are classified as functionally obsolete. Such deficiencies may adversely affect the performance of transportation systems in emergency situations or for disaster response. This narrative has become part of the public debate sparked by the collapse of the I-35W Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, on August 1, 2007.  Ever since, numerous technical and news articles have been written to answer the persistent question, why did the bridge collapse?

    Exhaustive examination of the details of a specific bridge failure, typically, reveals the reasons for the collapse and lessons are drawn from the experience. Each bridge failure, since the Tacoma Narrows Bride disaster in 1940, has served as a wakeup call for the bridge engineering community, initiating radical changes in the design and construction standards. However, a paradigm shift is necessary in the inspection and monitoring practices of the bridge engineering community to provide preventive maintenance and restore the public’s confidence in the safety of bridges.

    Concerns about bridge safety and reliability go beyond geographical boundaries and are shared by bridge engineers from different countries. This book contains a number of selected papers that were presented at the Fifth New York City Bridge Conference, held on August 17-18, 2009. These papers cover a wide range of topics in the design, construction, maintenance, monitoring and rehabilitation of bridge structures.


    1 Bridge safety, analysis and design

    The safety of bridges
    T.V. Galambos

    LRFD versus ASD, the differences between the two standards for retaining wall and abutment design
    S. Esposito & H. Najm

    Providing the best bridges for the best cost
    R.A. Lawrie

    Taconic State Parkway Ramp ‘X’ Bridge project, Westchester, NY, USA
    E.S. Jarosz & J. Kang

    Screening and analysis for the gusset plates of the Hawk Falls Bridge, Pennsylvania, USA
    M.M. Myers

    Selection and design of the high load multirotational bearings for the St. Anthony Falls Bridge in Minnesota
    K.L. Western, T.A. DeHaven & R.J. Watson

    2 Cable-supported bridges

    Potential of multi main-spans suspension bridge
    M. Inoue

    Kanchanaphisek Bridge: A cable-stayed bridge designed for a low maintenance budget
    R. Hsu & P. Vineyard

    Design-build of the Indian River Inlet cable stayed bridge
    K.V. Butler, D. Robb & P. Halvarsson

    A self anchored suspension pedestrian bridge over Harbor Drive in San Diego, California, USA
    D. Fitzwilliam & J. Tognoli

    Stay cable replacement, high level engineering for an extended serviceability
    E. Mellier, S. Joye & V. Maillet

    3 Movable bridges

    Rehabilitation of Bridge Street Bridge preserving a nineteenth century historic bascule lift span
    P. van Hagen & H. ProtinVI Table of contents

    Replacement of a rare Hanover skewed bascule—The Hamilton Avenue Bridge, New York City, USA
    K. Griesing

    Innovative redesign for cost savings on a vertical lift bridge
    E. Kelly & W. Nickoley

    4 Advanced materials

    Lightweight concrete for long span bridges
    R. Castrodale & K. Harmon

    Experimental study on hybrid steel-concrete beam connected with perfobond ribs
    S-H. Kim, J-H. Won, J-H. Ahn, C.G. Lee & S-J. Kim

    Rehabilitation of bridges using Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete
    E. Brühwiler

    Lightweight and recycled materials for the construction of the Messina Strait Bridge, Italy
    G. Di Giannantonio

    5 Bridge instrumentation and monitoring

    Modeling and instrumentation of the Tobin Memorial Bridge in Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    B. Brenner, E. Santini-Bell, W. Durack, M. Sanayei & E. Pheifer

    Structural health monitoring using wireless acoustic emission sensor network
    T. Hay, S. Jayaraman & D.R. Hay

    Bridge monitoring to measure corrosion rate and concrete resistivity
    C.J. Moretti & S. Jerath

    6 Bridge security and testing

    The security assessment of structural cable assemblies in bridges
    T.W. Klein

    Overview of available detection technologies with applications to bridge security
    J. Godoy & J. Chang

    Development of a baseline model for an arch using diagnostic tests
    J. Liu & H.W. Shenton

    7 Bridge inspection, management and assessment

    Developing a business process model for bridge management in Europe
    T. Browne, J. Harvey & P. OwensTable of contents VII

    Use of public-private partnerships in bridge infrastructure delivery
    J. Chang

    Special topics studies for baseline structural modeling for condition assessment of in-service bridges
    E.S. Bell & J.D. Sipple

    Merging and moving forward with New Jersey Turnpike Authority’s
    Bridge inspection program 291
    J.H. Laird & J.A. Paul

    Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s computerized structure inspection system
    J.K. Shaffer & M.C. Schellhase

    8 Bridge construction, maintenance and retrofit

    Construction engineering considerations for highway bridges
    B. Chavel, S. Tunstall & R. Eaton

    Concept and practice of accelerated bridge construction in California, USA
    P. Chung, J.J.Q. Fang & K.J. Thompson

    The maintenance of the main expansion joints on the Forth Road Suspension Bridge, Scotland
    B.R. Colford, S. Jones, D. Timby & K. Brown

    Reinforcement design of the Filetto Bridge on the Santerno river near Bologna, Italy
    G. Gasparini, S. Silvestri, T. Trombetti & C. Ceccoli

    Retrofit and replacement of Dumbarton railroad bridges, California, USA
    K.S. Go, S. Treyger, M. Jones, S.J. Hill, B. Susanto & W. Yang

    9 Bridge deck evaluation

    Understanding the limitations of exodermic bridge decks: A case study on the Kingston-Rhinecliff Bridge
    W.J. Moreau

    Multi-level bridge deck evaluation combining Ground Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography methods
    K.R. Maser & B.C. Miller

    The history and benefits of prefabricated grid reinforced concrete decks
    P.M. Gase & M.R. Kaczinski

    10 Bridge history and aesthetics

    Christian Menn’s recent bridge designs—Reducing structural elements to the simplest solution
    E. BrühwilerVIII Table of contents

    A study of the evolution of arch forms: Eiffel’s Maria Pia Bridge and Ammann’s Bayonne Bridge
    A.P. Thrall & D.P. Billington

    Design and construction of the Third Millennium Bridge over the Ebro River in Zaragoza, Spain
    J.J. Arenas de Pablo, G. Capellán Miguel, H. Beade Pereda & J. Martínez Aparicio

    Walkway over the Hudson—Fast track design and construction
    P. Melewski, J. Brizzell, H.J. Marcelle & J. DiStefano

    Verrugas Viaduct and its reconstruction, Peru, South America
    K. Gandhi

    Design and erection of four signature urban bridges recently built in Spain
    J.J. Arenas de Pablo, G. Capellán Miguel, E. Merino Rasillo & M. Sacristán Montesinos

    Author index


    Khaled Mahmoud