Salt and Sediment Dynamics: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Salt and Sediment Dynamics

1st Edition

By Ian Lerche, Kenneth Petersen

CRC Press

336 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780849376849
pub: 1995-08-01
SAVE ~$101.00
$505.00
$404.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780203740224
pub: 2017-11-22
from $252.50


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

Salt and Sediment Dynamics presents a thorough treatment of salt and sediment interactions and the implications of such interactions for sub-salt exploration. The book emphasizes and utilizes recent discoveries on many aspects of salt and sediment interactions, provides the theoretical framework for interpreting the increasing amount of available data on salt and sediments, and develops a self-consistent dynamical evolution model of salt structures and their interaction with surrounding sediments.

The model developed in the text consists of an evolving salt structure that influences sediment motion with self-consistent evolution of sediments and salt shape. The resulting stress and strain in the sediments and the thermal focusing effects of the salt are evaluated. The salt and sediments in the model are consistent with observed geometries, a result of having freely adjustable, observation-controlled model parameters.

In addition, the book describes case histories in a variety of geological settings, thus explaining aspects of the genesis and development of salt structures, of their impact on sedimentary structural evolution, and of the impact of sediments on salt masses.

The techniques developed by the authors expand the current state of knowledge regarding the evolution and dynamics of salt structures and increase the potential for effective sub-salt hydrocarbon exploration.

Table of Contents

Introduction

SECTION A: FACETS OF SALT AND SEDIMENT INTERACTIONS

Salt Velocity from Temperature and Thermal Indicator Anomalies: Lulu-1, Danish North Sea

Introduction

Theory

The Lulu-1 Diapir, Danish North Sea

Discussion: Sensitivity Analysis. Dynamics.

Conclusion

Appendix A: Equations for Determining Relative Salt Speed

Appendix B: Quasi-Equilibrium Model of Diapirism

Salt Insertions in Sedimentary Sequences: Impacts on Temperature and Thermal Maturation

One-Dimensional Representations: Introduction. Description of the Model. Temperature Distribution. Influence on Thermal Maturation of Hydrocarbons. Sensitivity Tests of Two Salt Cases. Discussion and Conclusion.

Two-Dimensional Representations: Heat Flow Model. Temperature Distribution Around Salt Sills. Hydrocarbon Maturation. Semi-Infinite Salt Sheets. Finite Horizontal Salt Sill. Semi-Infinite Inclined Salt Sills. Conclusions.

Multiple Salt Bodies: Two Synthetic Tests. Salt in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Temperature Anomalies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Discussion.

Temperature Dependence of Salt Thermal Conductivity: Introduction. Basic Equations and Solution. Numerical Illustrations. Discussion and Conclusions.

Salt Insertions in Sedimentary Sequences: Impacts on Sediment Distortion and Sediment Fracturing

Modeling Sediment Fracturing Around Rapidly Moving Lateral Salt Sheets: Introduction. Methods. Model Results. Discussion. Summary.

Erosion Estimate from Salt/Sediment Shapes: Barents Sea, Norway: Review of Methods. The Method Applied to a Mushroom Salt Diapir. A Synthetic Test. A Case History in Barents Sea, Norway. Discussion.

Hydrocarbon Migration Speed Estimates: Green Canyon Block, Gulf of Mexico: Introduction. Stratigraphic Evidence. Synthetic Tests. Model Resolution to d13Cmixed Measurements. Application. Duscussion and Implications. Conclusions.

Appendix: Mixing. HC Steady Flow/Microbial Degradation. Least Squares.

Simple Estimates of Dynamical, Thermal, and Hydrocarbon Maturity Factors

Formulae for Making Estimates: Dynamical Aspects. Thermal Maturity Aspects.

Applications to a Gulf of Mexico Salt Structure: Background Information. Dynamical Considerations. Miocene Uplift. Thermal Maturity Considerations. Hydrocarbon Migration. Conclusions.

Overpressure Build-Up in Formations Underlying Salt Sheets in the Gulf of Mexico: Physical Conditions in Formations Underlying Salt Sheets. Dynamical Models of Physical Properties of Sub-Salt Formations. Discussion and Conclusion.

Integrated Model Requirements

Rim Syncline

Diapiric Stem

Mushroom Cap Overhang

Salt Volume

Geometrical Anisotropy of Diapirs

Sedimentary Bed Distortions

Basinal Evolution

Thermal Anomalies and Thermal Maturation

Faulting and Fracturing

Consistency Arguments

SECTION B: SELF-CONSISTENT SALT AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS

Modeling Present-Day Salt Shapes

Introduction. Experimental Model Studies. Mathematical Models. Logic Structure of the Model Procedure.

Present-Day Salt Shapes

Sensitivity Analysis

Examples of Present-Day Salt Shapes - North Louisiana Salt Basin

Summary

Appendix: Construction of a 2-D Salt Shape. Determination of the Best Parameter Values

Deposition and Deformation of Sedimentary Beds Around an Evolving Salt Shape

Introduction

Grid Construction: Primary Grid. Secondary Grid.

Evolving Salt Shapes, Deposition, and Motion of Sediments: Input Sediment Thicknesses in the Grid. Smoothing Bed Positions.

Summary

Appendix 1: Track Construction. Equal Spacing and Spline Interpolation.

Appendix 2: A Time-Evolving Salt Shape. Inverse Methods for Time-Dependent Parameters.

Appendix 3: Smoothing Procedure.

Modeling Stress-Strain Development Through Time

Introduction

Modeling Strain: Correction of the Grid. Calculation of Strain Through Time.

Modeling Evolution of Stress: Calculation of Stress Through Time. Approximations of Rock Properties With Depth.

Examples: Overhang Structure. Plug-Shaped Structure.

Summary

Thermal Focusing of Heat

Introduction

Calculation of Temperature Anomalies

Examples: Temperature Anomalies Around Different Shapes. Effects of Varying Temperature-Controlling Parameters. Thermal Histories Around a Moving Salt Sheet.

Conclusions

Summary

SECTION C: APPLICATIONS AND CASE HISTORIES

North Louisiana Salt Basin - Test Case 1

Introduction

Present-Day Shape

Combined Evolution of Salt and Sediments: Models 1-3. Sensitivity Analysis. Structural History - Summary.

Deformation History

Temperature Histories: Models 1 and 3.

Summary

Norwegian-Danish Basin - Test Case 2

Introduction

Present-Day Shape

Combined Evolution of Salt and Sediments: Models 1 and 2. Structural History - Summary.

Temperature Histories

Summary

Pseudo-3D Modeling of the Combined Evolution of Salt and Sediments: A Danish North Sea Example

Introduction

Present-Day Shapes

Combined Evolution of Salt and Sediments

Thermal History

Stress and Strain Development

Discussion

General Summary

References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply