Sampling Techniques for Forest Inventories: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Sampling Techniques for Forest Inventories

1st Edition

By Daniel Mandallaz

Chapman and Hall/CRC

272 pages | 27 B/W Illus.

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Sound forest management planning requires cost-efficient approaches to optimally utilize given resources. Emphasizing the mathematical and statistical features of forest sampling to assess classical dendrometrical quantities, Sampling Techniques for Forest Inventories presents the statistical concepts and tools needed to conduct a modern forest inventory.

The book first examines design-based survey sampling and inference for finite populations, covering inclusion probabilities and the Horvitz–Thompson estimator, followed by more advanced topics, including three-stage element sampling and the model-assisted estimation procedure. The author then develops the infinite population model/Monte Carlo approach for both simple and complex sampling schemes. He also uses a case study to reveal a variety of estimation procedures, relies on anticipated variance to tackle optimal design for forest inventories, and validates the resulting optimal schemes with data from the Swiss National Forest Inventory. The last chapters outline facts pertaining to the estimation of growth and introduce transect sampling based on the stereological approach.

Containing many recent developments available for the first time in book form, this concise and up-to-date work provides the necessary theoretical and practical foundation to analyze and design forest inventories.


…the text is an excellent addition to the forest and natural resource inventory literature, and nicely compliments classic and contemporary texts focused broadly on applied concepts and tools but lacking in rigorous statistical treatment. … this text is an important contribution to the literature, as it provides a unique, mathematically rigorous tour of classical and modern topics on forest sampling theory. Of particular importance is the text’s emphasis on model-based methods, which are becoming increasingly important within forest and natural resources inventory.

The American Statistician, Vol. 63, No. 3, August 2009, and JASA, Winter 2008

…In this field, the author is a leading expert who presents the modern state of the art, in particular his own work of the last two decades. … a valuable, up-to-date reference book for the theoretical aspects of forest inventories and sampling … .

—Dietrich Stoyan, Biometrical Journal, Vol. 51, 2009

This compact little volume is packed with important and useful ideas.

—Donald E. Myers, University of Arizona, Technometrics, May 2009

This is an important reference for those wanting to understand the theory of sampling in forest inventory, and also for those with graduate- or postgraduate-level skills in statistics who apply these techniques in the forestry industry. Despite its length, the book provides reasonably thorough coverage of the theory of statistics applied to forest inventories. …a very useful, up-to-date reference book on the theory of statistics as it should be applied to forest inventory.

International Statistical Review, 2008

Table of Contents


Introduction and terminology

Sampling finite populations: the essentials

Sampling schemes and inclusion probabilities

The Horvitz–Thompson estimator

Simple random sampling without replacement

Poisson sampling

Unequal probability sampling with replacement

Estimation of ratios

Stratification and post-stratification

Two-stage sampling

Single-stage cluster-sampling

Systematic sampling


Sampling finite populations: advanced topics

Three-stage element sampling

Abstract nonsense and elephants

Model-assisted estimation procedures


Forest Inventory: one-phase sampling schemes


One-phase one-stage simple random sampling scheme

One-phase one-stage cluster random sampling scheme

One-phase two-stage simple random sampling

One-phase two-stage cluster random sampling


Forest Inventory: two-phase sampling schemes

Two-phase one-stage simple random sampling

Two-phase two-stage simple random sampling

Two-phase one-stage cluster random sampling

Two-phase two-stage cluster random sampling

Internal linear models in two-phase sampling

Remarks on systematic sampling


Forest Inventory: advanced topics

The model-dependent approach

Model-assisted approach

Small-area estimation

Modeling relationships




Ordinary Kriging

Kriging with sampling error

Double Kriging for two-phase sampling schemes



Optimal sampling schemes for forest inventory


Anticipated variance under the local Poisson model

Optimal one-phase one-stage sampling schemes

Discrete approximations of PPS

Optimal one-phase two-stage sampling schemes

Optimal two-phase sampling schemes


The Swiss National Forest Inventory

Estimating change and growth


Transect Sampling


IUR transect sampling

PPL transect sampling

Transects with fixed length

Buffon’s needle problem


APPENDIX A: Simulations


Simple random sampling

Systematic cluster sampling

Two-phase simple systematic sampling


APPENDIX B: Conditional expectations and variances

APPENDIX C: Solutions to selected exercises



About the Author

Mandallaz, Daniel

About the Series

Chapman & Hall/CRC Applied Environmental Statistics

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / Forestry