1st Edition

Sanctions for Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Moving Forward

Edited By Armend Bekaj, Peter Wallensteen Copyright 2025
    272 Pages
    by Routledge

    This book examines the interplay between sanctions and nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.

    The volume aims to tackle three separate but closely intertwined issues:
    (1) it aims to revisit the debate on, and deconstruct the concept of, sanctions; to provide a working theoretical framework; to differentiate between positive sanctions (or incentives, or carrots) and negative sanctions; to identify the actors who may initiate sanctions (i.e. states, regional and/or international organizations); to ascertain the legality and legitimacy of such sanctions taking place, to problematize and discuss the utility of sanctions, etc.
    (2) It aims to disentangle the concepts of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, particularly in light of the most recent geopolitical global shifts on nuclear powers-interplay taking place in the background of the war in Ukraine and rising tensions in Southeast Asia, etc. (3) Finally, it aims to conjoin the cause-and-effect cases between the application of sanctions on one hand, and the decision by states to pursue nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.  By doing so, the volume helps to update and stimulate the academic and policy debate on the inter-relation between sanctions, and nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.

    This book will be of much interest to students of nuclear non-proliferation, economic sanctions, security studies and International Relations.



    Chapter One – The Promise of Sanctions for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

    Peter Wallensteen and Armend Bekaj


    Part I – General Observations on International Sanctions


    Chapter Two – Incentivizing Non-proliferation: Theory, Policy, and Experience

    David Cortright and Thomas Biersteker


    Chapter Three – Sanctions as Tools to Achieve Nuclear Reduction Policy: Is there a Better Way Forward?

    George A. Lopez


    Chapter Four – The EU’s Use of Sanctions in Nuclear Non-proliferation and Arms Control

    Clara Portela and Mathilde Jeantil


    Chapter Five – Latin America and the Caribbean: a Tradition of Nuclear Disarmament and Non-proliferation

    Gilberto M. A. Rodrigues


    Part II – The Use of Sanctions for Nuclear Arms Control and Non-proliferation


    Chapter Six – Constrain, Coerce and Deter: Non-proliferation Sanctions against India and China

    Rishika Chauhan


    Chapter Seven – Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons and Sanctions

    Armend Bekaj and Rishika Chauhan


    Chapter Eight – The Utility of Sanctions on Non-proliferation: Iran’s Nuclear Programme

    Trita Parsi


    Chapter Nine – Liberation Movements, Sanctions, and Nuclear Disarmament: the African National Congress and apartheid South Africa

    Jo-Ansie van Wyk

    Chapter Ten – The Federal Republic of Germany and the Non-Proliferation Treaty: Did Sanctions Have an Effect?

    Doğukan Cansın Karakuş




    Chapter Eleven – Sanctions and Non-Proliferation: Where We Are and Where We Should Go

    Peter Wallensteen and Armend Bekaj


    Armend Bekaj is a Researcher at Working Group 2 on International Measures for Compliance to Nuclear Disarmament Regimes at Alva Myrdal Centre for Nuclear Disarmament (AMC), Department of Peace and Conflict Research (DPCR), Uppsala University. He combines academic and policy experience on peace and conflict, democracy and autocracy, with a focus on sanctions and nuclear disarmament / non-proliferation.

    Peter Wallensteen is Dag Hammarskjöld Professor Emeritus of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University and Richard G. Starmann Sr. Research Professor Emeritus at Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame. He served as the first Head of the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research and now leads AMC’s Working Group on International Measures for Compliance to Nuclear Disarmament Regimes.