Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

1st Edition

By Stuart H. James

CRC Press

320 pages

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Hardback: 9780849381089
pub: 1998-06-29
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Since 1955 when Dr. Paul Kirk first presented a bloodstain evidence affidavit in State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard, expert testimony on bloodstain interpretation has gained wide acceptance in U.S. courts. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation brings together some of the most respected and noted experts in forensic science, the law, and bloodstain interpretation to provide a comprehensive overview of the discipline. It discusses research, applications, and the current view of bloodstain pattern interpretation within the legal system at the trial and appellate court levels, as well as scientific approaches and developments in the field.

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation will help attorneys who are questioning and cross-examining expert witnesses have a good working knowledge of bloodstain interpretation. Included is a full-color atlas of bloodstains, in conjunction with a glossary of terms and an outline of basic laboratory experiments that are commonly used in the discipline.

Among the outstanding contributions in this volume you will find:

  • An excellent chapter by Carol Henderson discusses the legal and ethical aspects of bloodstain pattern evidence in detail.

  • A post-conviction analysis by Marie Elena Saccoccio evaluates how bloodstain evidence can play a role in the appeal process.

    Misinterpretation and overinterpretation of bloodstain evidence can occur in our courts of law-be prepared to effectively analyze the evidence and the testimony with Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation.

  • Table of Contents

    Defining the "Address" of Bloodstains and Other Evidence at the Crime Scene, William C. Fischer



    Two Angles and a Distance



    Surface Designation

    Establishing the Flight Path

    Solving for the Slope of the Flight Path


    Solving for the Point of Intersection

    Calculating the Value of the Third Coordinate

    Calculating the Distance from Stain to PO


    Other Objects and Surfaces


    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Computer, Alfred L. Carter


    Part I-Computing the String Direction

    Part II-Actual Flight Paths Compared to Virtual Strings

    Part III-The Virtual String Analysis of a Bloodstain Pattern Using BackTrack/Win

    Utilizing Bloodstains in Accident Reconstruction, William C. Fischer


    Relative Motion

    Pattern Recognition

    Case Examples

    The Use of Presumptive Testing for Blood, T. Paulette Sutton


    Presumptive Tests for Blood

    Presumptive Test Mechanism

    Benzidine Test

    Benzidine Test Reagent-Single Stage

    Benzidine Test Reagent-Two Stage

    ortho-Toluidine Test

    Hemastix® Test

    Leucomalachite Green Test-Single Stage

    Leucomalachite Green Test-Two Stage

    Phenolphthalein Test

    Luminol Test

    Sensitivity of Presumptive Tests for Blood

    False Positives

    Results of Study

    Terminology and Color Atlas of Bloodstains and Patterns, Stuart H. James

    Approach to Case Evaluation and Report Writing, Paul Erwin Kish

    Approaching Bloodstain Pattern Cases

    Sequence for Approaching Bloodstain Pattern Cases

    Factors to Consider When Analyzing a Bloodstain Pattern Case

    The Bloodstain Report

    Legal and Ethical Aspects of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence, Carol Henderson


    Legal Issues

    Direct and Cross Examination of the Expert

    Ethical Issues


    Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation-A Post-Conviction Analysis, Marie Elena Saccoccio


    A Bit of History

    The Post-Conviction Attorney's Role-So Daunting a Task

    The Appeal


    The Collateral Attack


    Outline of Basic Laboratory Experiments for Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation, Stuart H. James

    The Volume of a Drop of Blood

    Diameter of a Bloodstain Produced by Single Drops of Blood of Constant Volume as a Function of Distance Fallen and Surface Texture

    Effect of Surface Texture on Spatter of Blood Drops and the Size and Edge Characteristics of the Resultant Bloodstains

    Bloodstain Shape vs. Angle of Impact

    Angular Impact Produced by Horizontal Motion

    Drip Patterns of Blood and Splashed Blood vs. Distance Fallen

    Projected Blood vs. Distance Fallen and Blood Projected on Vertical Surfaces

    Cast-Off Bloodstains

    Medium-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter

    High-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter

    Recognition of Blood Contact-Transfer Patterns, Swipes or Smears, Smudges and Wipes of Blood

    Blood Volume vs. Bloodstained Area

    Bloodstain Size vs. Horizontal Projection

    Clotting and Drying Time of Blood

    Presumptive Testing of Blood

    Appendix 1: Affidavit of Paul Leland Kirk (State of Ohio v. Samuel H. Sheppard

    Appendix 2: Illustrative Testimony-A Motion in Limine for the Admissibility of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

    Appendix 3: Court Decisions Relating to Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

    Appendix 4: Court Decisions Relating to Presumptive Blood Testing

    Appendix 5: Trigonometric Tables


    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    LAW / Forensic Science