Scientific and Medical Knowledge Production, 1796-1918
Volume II: Humanity
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This volume foregrounds humanity (in the sense of compassion or sympathy), which often supplied the motivation for medical experiment and scientific innovation. Though the results of experiments could not be known in advance, often the stated goal was the reduction of suffering, the cure of disease, or the easement of life. Increasingly, critics accused practitioners of hiding hubris behind their purported humanity and questioned whether an increasingly professional scientific community could retain its grip on the meaning of compassion.
Table of Contents
Volume II – Humanity
Volume II Introduction
Part 1. Macrobiotics
1. Christopher W. Hufeland, ‘Preface’, in The Art of Prolonging Human Life: In which the subject is considered, both philosophically and practically (London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1829), xv-xvi.
Part 2. Phrenology
2. George Combe, The Constitution of Man in relation to Natural Laws (London: Cassell 1803), 93-5.
Part 3. Galvanism
3. Giovanni Aldini, General Views of the Application of Galvanism to Medical Purposes; Principally in Cases of Suspended Animation (London: J. Callow, 1819), v-vi.
Part 4. Mesmerism
4. W. Topham and W. Squire Ward, Account of a Case of Successful Amputation of the Thigh during the Mesmeric State, with the knowledge of the patient (London: H. Baillière, 1842), 7-16.
5. John Elliotson, Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations without Pain in the Mesmeric State; with Remarks upon the Opposition of Many Members of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society and Others to the Reception of the Inestimable Blessings of Mesmerism (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1843), 3-7.
Part 5. Surgery
6. William Anderson, Introductory Address Delivered at St. Thomas’s Hospital, October 1st, 1889 (London: Adlard and Son, 1889), 32-8.
Part 6. Physiology and medicine
7. François Magendie, Physiological and Chemical Researches on the Use of the Prussic or Hydro-Cyanic Acid in the Treatment of Diseases of the Breast, and Particularly in Phthisis Pulmonalis (New Haven: Howe & Spalding, 1820), 17-32, 80-6.
8. François Magendie, A Memoir on Some Recent Discoveries Relative to the Functions of the Nervous System: Read Before the Academie des Sciences at Paris, at the Public Sitting of the 22d of June, 1823 (London: John Nimmo, 1828), 1-30.
9. John Call Dalton, Experimentation of Animals (New York: Christern, 1875), 7-11.
10. Charles Darwin, ‘To the Editor of The Times’, 23 June, 1876, Darwin Correspondence Project, ‘Letter no. 10546’.
11. Joseph Lister, ‘Introduction’, Experiments on Animals, by Stephen Paget (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1900), xi-xii.
12. Charles Hunter Dunn, Animal Experimentation in Relation to Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis (Chicago: American Medical Association, 1911), 6-13, 20-1.
13. Stephen Coleridge and Stephen Paget, The Torture of Animals and Its Effect upon the Death Rate: Being a Reprint by Permission from the Contemporary Review, of a Controversy between Mr Stephen Coleridge and Mr Stephen Paget (London: Horace Marshall & Son, 1902), 1-18.
14. William Welch, ‘The Endowment of Research’, Science, 6 July, 1906, 6-12.
15. Nathaniel Henry Alcock and Ernest Starling, A Textbook of Experimental Physiology for Students of Medicine, (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1909), v-vi.
16. John W. Churchman, The Value of Animal Experimentation as Illustrated by Recent Advances in the Study of Syphilis (Chicago: American Medical Association, 1911), 22-4.
17. Earl of Cromer, ‘Introduction’, For and Against Experiments on Animals: Evidence Before the Royal Commission on Vivisection, by Stephen Paget (London: H.K. Lewis, 1912), ix-xxxii.
18. Edward Sharpey Schafer, Life: Its Nature, Origin and Maintenance: An Address Delivered to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, at Its Meeting at Dundee in September, 1912 (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912), 7-36.
19. Karl Lashley, ‘Visual Discrimination of Size and Form in the Albino Rat’, Journal of Animal Behavior, 2 (1912): 310, 327-30.
20. William W. Keen, Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914), xxii-xxv, 268-71.
Part 7. Eugenics/Statistics/Anthropometry
21. Francis Galton, ‘The Anthropometric Laboratory arranged by Francis Galton, F.R.S. (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1884), 3-12.
22. British Association for the Advancement of Science, ‘Mental and Physical Deviations of Children’ (London, 1895), 1-6.
23. Francis Galton, Memories of My Life (2nd edition, London: Methuen & Co., 1908), 43-4, 276-84, 296-8.
24. Alexander Graham Bell, ‘How to Improve the Race’, Journal of Heredity, 5 (1914), 1-7.
Part 8. Bacteriology
25. Robert Koch, On Bacteriology and Its Results: A Lecture (London: Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1890), 20-3.
26. Robert Koch, The Cure of Consumption: Further Communication on a Remedy for Tuberculosis (London: William Heinemann, 1890), 3-11.
Part 9 Astronomy
27. Annie J. Cannon, ‘Willamina Paton Fleming’, Science, 30 June, 1911.
Part 10. Chemistry
28. Benjamin Brodie, Further Experiments and Observations on the Action of Poisons on the Animal System (London: W. Bulmer and Co., 1812), 1-2.
Rob Boddice, PhD, FRHistS, is Senior Research Fellow at the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in the History of Experiences, Tampere University, Finland.