1st Edition

Scientific and Medical Knowledge Production, 1796-1918 Volume IV: Uncertainty

Edited By Rob Boddice Copyright 2023

    This volume showcases doubt from within the scientific community itself. These sources dwell upon the moments at which ideas became challenged, when facts were revealed to be fiction, and when knowns reverted to unknowns. But the focus is not the ideas and facts themselves, but on the ways in which scientists adjusted themselves to new landscapes of uncertainty in their particular cultural and professional practices.

    Volume IV - Uncertainty


    General Introduction

    Volume IV Introduction

    Part 1. General

    1. William Whewell, The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Founded upon their History (2nd edition, London: John W. Parker, 1847), 62-6.

    2. John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being A Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1846), 216-37.

    3. John Stuart Mill, Autobiography (2nd edition, London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1873), 223-7.

    4. Arthur James Balfour, A Defence of Philosophic Doubt, Being an Essay on the Foundations of Belief (London: MacMillan, 1879), 13-14, 30-44.

    Part 2. Phrenology

    5. George Combe, A System of Phrenology (3rd edition, Edinburgh: John Anderson,1830), 6-7.

    6. Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Outlines of the Physiological System of Drs Gall and Spurzheim: Indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind (London: Baldwin, Craddock and Joy, 1815), 1-5, 7-29.

    7. John Gordon, Observations on the Structure of the Brain, Comprising an Estimate of the Claims of Drs Gall and Spurzheim to Discovery in the Anatomy of that Organ (Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1817), 1-2, 25-8, 141-7.

    Part 3. Medicine

    8. Elizabeth Blackwell to Anna Q.T. Parsons, 24 June, 1848.

    9. Elizabeth Blackwell, The Influence of Women in the Profession of Medicine: Address Given at the Opening of the Winter Session of the London School of Medicine for Women (London: George Bell and Sons, 1889), 12-26.

    10. Elizabeth Blackwell, Scientific Method in Biology (London: Elliot Stock, 1898), 27-39.

    11. Nova Scotia, ‘The Modern Assistant’, British Medical Journal, June 21, 1890, 1456.

    Part 4. Physiology

    12. J. T. Moggridge to Charles Darwin, 24 July, 1873. Darwin Correspondence Project, ‘Letter no. 8986’.

    13. Gustav von Bunge, Textbook of Physiological Chemistry and Pathology, translated by Florence Amelia Starling and edited by her husband Henry Ernest Starling (Philadelphia: P.Blackiston’s Son & Co., 1902), v-viii, 1-12.

    14. J. S. Haldane, Mechanism, Life and Personality; An Examination of the Mechanistic Theory of Life and Mind (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1914), 16-30, 45-53, 58-73, 76-7, 81-2.

    15. Hugh Elliot, ‘Introduction’, Zoological Philosophy, by J.B. Lamarck (London: MacMillan, 1914), xc-xcii.

    16. John G. Shortall, Human Vivisection: A Statement and an Inquiry (Fall River: American Humane Association, 1900), 3-30.

    17. The Reality of Human Vivisection: A Review of a Letter by William W. Keen (Boston: American Humane Association, 1901), 1-32.

    Part 5. Biology

    18. A. Sedgwick to Charles Darwin, 24 November 1859. Darwin Correspondence Project, ‘Letter no. 2548’.

    19. J. D. Hooker to Charles Darwin 20 April, 1863. Darwin Correspondence Project, ‘Letter no. 4111’.

    20. Benjamin Ward Richardson, Biological Experimentation, Its Function and Limits, Including Answers to Nine Questions Submitted from the Leigh-Browne Trust (London: Bell, 1896), 14-28.

    21. Letters of Charles Darwin to J.D. Hooker (22 October, 1881), Lyon Playfair (26 May, 1875), Lyon Playfair (28 May, 1875), George John Romanes (4 June, 1876), Thomas Lauder Brunton (19 November, 1881), with reply (21 November, 1881), Thomas Lauder Brunton (22 November, 1881), Thomas Lauder Brunton, 17 December, 1881, Thomas Lauder Brunton (14 February, 1882), from More Letters of Charles Darwin: A Record of His Work in a Series of Hitherto Unpublished Letters, ed. Francis Darwin (London: John Murray, 1903), II, 435-41.

    Part 6. Electrical engineering

    22. Hertha Marks Ayrton, The Electric Arc (New York: The D. Van Nostrand Company, 1902), 1, 19-27.

    Part 7. Physics (fluid mechanics)

    23. Arthur Mason Worthington, , The Splash of a Drop (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1895), 74-6.

    Part 8. Psychoanalysis

    24. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (New York: Carlton House, 1900), 380.

    Part 9. Spiritualism

    25. Alfred Russel Wallace, On Miracles and Modern Spiritualism: Three Essays (1875), v-viii, 44-51.

    26. Alfred Russel Wallace, My Life: A Record of Events and Opinions (1905), 277-94, 349-50.

    27. Alfred Russel Wallace, Alfred Russel Wallace: Letters and Reminiscences (1916), 210.

    Part 10. Literary Representation

    28. H. G. Wells, The Island of Doctor Moreau: A Possibility (New York: Stone & Kimball, 1896), 127-46.

    29. Robert Louis Stevenson, ‘Henry Jekyll’s Full Statement of the Case’, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1886), 106-41.

    Part 11. War as Human Experiment

    30. George Washington Crile, ‘A Mechanistic View of the Vivisection of Belgium’, A Mechanistic View of War and Peace (New York: MacMillan, 1915), 79-89.



    Rob Boddice, PhD, FRHistS, is Senior Research Fellow at the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in the History of Experiences, Tampere University, Finland.