1st Edition

Scour and Erosion Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion (Oxford, UK, 12-15 September 2016)

Edited By John Harris, Richard Whitehouse, Sarah Moxon Copyright 2016

    Scour and Erosion includes four keynote lectures from world leading researchers cutting across the themes of scour and erosion, together with 132 peer-reviewed papers from 34 countries, covering the principal themes of:
    - internal erosion
    - sediment transport
    - grain scale to continuum scale
    - advanced numerical modelling of scour and erosion
    - terrestrial scour and erosion- river and estuarine erosion including scour around structures, and
    - management of scour/erosion and sediment, including hazard management and sedimentation in dams and reservoirs.

    Scour and Erosion is ideal for researchers and industry working at the forefront of scour and erosion, and has applications in both the freshwater and marine environments.


    25 years of fixing bridges on gravel mined rivers in California
    C.M.C. Avila

    Scour and sedimentation of submarine pipelines: Closing the gap between laboratory experiments and field conditions
    S. Draper, L. Cheng & D.J. White

    Hydrodynamics of sediment transport: Grain scale to continuum scale
    S. Dey & Sk.Z. Ali

    Lessons on internal erosion in embankment dams from failures and physical models
    J.J. Fry

    Advanced numerical modelling of scour and erosion

    Numerical simulation on local scour below a weir using Two-phase WC-SPH method
    A.M. Abdelrazek, I. Kimura & Y. Shimizu

    3D Numerical modelling of pile scour with free surface profile under waves and current using the level set method in model REEF3D
    N. Ahmad, H. Bihs, A. Kamath & O.A. Arntsen

    Micro-scale characterization of fluid flow in a uniform particle pack using coupled discrete element-lattice Boltzmann method
    M. Aminpour, S.A. Galindo-Torres, A. Scheuermann & L. Li

    Using DEM to assess the influence of stress and fabric inhomogeneity and anisotropy on susceptibility to suffusion
    K. Kawano, C. O’Sullivan & T. Shire

    Numerical simulation of scour infilling in overset grid
    H. Kim, H.C. Chen & J.-L. Briaud

    Numerical simulation of scour below pipelines using flexible mesh methods
    J.M. Nunez Rattia, J.R. Percival, B. Yeager, S. Neethling & M.D. Piggott

    Simulation of sand particle transport by coupled CFD-DEM: First investigations
    D. Plenker & J. Grabe

    Development and verification of a finite volume model for hydraulics over multi-layered erodible beds
    T. Rowan & M. Seaid

    Phenomenological interpretation of internal erosion in granular soils from a discrete fluid-solid numerical model
    L. Sibille, D. Marot, P. Poullain & F. Lomine

    Numerical modeling of particle migration in granular soils
    I.G. Tejada, L. Sibille, B. Chareyre & E. Vincens

    Numerical investigation of the particle skeleton of widely graded soils prone to suffusion
    P. Winkler, H. Jentsch, M.R. Salehi Sadaghiani & K.J. Witt

    Coastal and offshore scour and erosion

    Effect of vibration on the scour process around cylindrical structures under unidirectional flow in a sandy bed
    M. Al-Hammadi & R.R. Simons

    Sediment transport and shoreline erosion induced by bichromatic waves with varying group period
    J.M. Alsina, J. van der Zanden, J.S. Ribberink & I. Caceres

    Characteristics of scour and flow field beneath a forced vibrating circular cylinder
    Y.-M. Chiew, S.-C. Hsieh & Y.M. Low

    Self-burial of objects on sandy beds by scour: A synthesis of observations
    C.T. Friedrichs, S.E. Rennie & A. Brandt

    Investigation of scour onset under seabed pipelines with geometric irregularities
    T. Griffiths, S. Draper, W. Sun, D. White, L. Cheng & H. An

    Exploring the bifurcation between sedimentation versus scour onset below pipelines in unidirectional currents
    T. Griffiths, S. Draper, W. Sun, D. White, L. Cheng & H. An

    Local scour and flow characteristics around a circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibration
    S.-C. Hsieh, Y.-M. Chiew, M.-X. Wei & Y.M. Low

    A full scale propeller wash erosion test on heterogeneous cohesive material
    Y. Karelle, P. Sharpe, G.M. Pizzo, P. Haerens & V. Albanese

    Laboratory experiments on scour around flat circular buckets for high waves and strong current at Wido Windfarm, Westsouth Sea, Korea
    H. Kim, I. Kim, S. Lee & T. Hong

    Sandwaves and megaripples at Race Bank (UK) offshore windfarm
    S.M. Larsen, A. Roulund, A.J. Brooks & A. Chaffey

    Time scales for scour below pipelines and around vertical piles due to nonlinear random waves
    D. Myrhaug, M.C. Ong & S. Dyrseth

    Determination of optimum wave reflection of seawalls via experimental modeling
    K. Nassar & A.M. Negm

    Scour below marine pipelines due to random waves on mild slopes
    M.C. Ong, P. Fu & D. Myrhaug

    Seabed preparation design and construction for the Malampaya phase 3 depletion compression platform
    J. Opkar, L. Lorenti & A. Grime

    Thermomechanical erosion modelling of Baydaratskaya Bay, Russia with COSMOS
    S.G. Pearson, R. Lubbad, T.M.H. Le & R.B. Nairn

    Numerical study of local scour effects on the lateral pile-soil interaction
    W.-G. Qi & F.-P. Gao

    Scour protection design in highly morphodynamic environments
    H.J. Riezebos, T.C. Raaijmakers, A. Tonnies-Lohmann, S. Wasmuth & P.W. van Steijn

    Parametric equations for Shields parameter and wave orbital velocity in combined current and irregular waves
    A. Roulund, J. Sutherland, D. Todd & J. Sterner

    Effect of bottom roughness on sediment transport due to streaming beneath linear propagating waves with an angle of attack on current
    M. Saud Afzal, L.E. Holmedal & D. Myrhaug

    The influence of physical cohesion on scour around a monopile
    R.J. Schindler, S. Stripling, R.J.S. Whitehouse & J.M. Harris

    Scour properties of mono bucket foundation
    I.-E. Stroescu & P. Frigaard

    Model experiments and simulations on influence of liquefaction on scour at a landward toe of coastal dykes due to tsunami overflow
    N. Takegawa, Y. Sawada, K. Murai & T. Kawabata

    Impact of the 2011 tsunami on the littoral system around offshore breakwaters on Sendai Coast
    H. Tanaka, Y. Mitobe & A. Mori

    Scour development around structures with non-uniform cylindrical geometries
    N.S. Tavouktsoglou, J.M. Harris, R.R. Simons & R.J.S. Whitehouse

    The stability of a block mattress in a propeller induced jet
    G. van Velzen, M.P.C. de Jong, J.P. Quataert & H.J. Verheij

    Propagation modes of 3D scour below a submarine pipeline in oblique steady currents and waves
    Z.P. Zang, G. Tang & L. Cheng

    Local scour around two subsea pipelines in an oscillatory flow
    M. Zhao, M. Liu, L. Lu, L. Cheng, H. An & S. Draper

    Scour patterns below pipelines and scour hole expansion rate
    Y. Zhu, L. Xie & X. Liang

    Internal erosion

    A discrete numerical description of the mechanical response of soils subjected to degradation by suffusion
    R. Aboul Hosn, L. Sibille, N. Benahmed & B. Chareyre

    Modeling of particles migration in porous media: Application to soil suffusion
    C. Ahmed & B. Ahmed

    Assessing the efficiency of filters protecting base soil subject to erosion
    S. Azirou, A. Benamar & A. Tahakourt

    Hydraulic failure by heave and piping
    J. Garai

    Characterisation of flow conditions for contact erosion analysis using PIV
    H.M.D. Harshani, S.A. Galindo-Torres & A. Scheuermann

    Experimental identification of the dominant fabric in widely graded soils
    H. Jentsch, P. Winkler, M.R. Salehi Sadaghiani & K.J. Witt

    Physical modelling of backward erosion piping in foundation beneath levee
    N. Koito, K. Horikoshi & A. Takahashi

    Suffusion susceptibility characterization by triaxial erodimeter and statistical analysis
    V.T. Le, D. Marot, A. Rochim, F. Bendahmane & H.H. Nguyen

    Impact of soil treatment on internal erosion resistance and hydro-mechanical characteristics of a silty soil
    A. Mehenni, O. Cuisinier, F. Masrouri & E. Lavallee

    Experimental and numerical investigation of backward erosion piping in heterogeneous sands
    G. Negrinelli, V.M. van Beek & R. Ranzi

    Localized fluidization in a granular medium: Parametric study with a physical model of “sand boiling”
    P. Philippe, P. Cuellar, L.-H. Luu, S. Mena & J.S. Curtis

    Laboratory investigation of backward erosion piping—effects of inclined exit face and constricted seepage exits
    J.D. Rice, I.A. Ibrahim, R.A. Keizer Jr. & R.A. Jaeger

    A possible characterization of suffusion susceptibility independent of the hydraulic loading history?
    A. Rochim, D. Marot, L. Sibille & V.T. Le

    Experimental findings of soil particle movement in 2D seepage failure of soil using particle image velocimetry
    T. Tanaka, S. Sannabe, S. Nagai, K. Kasamatsu & K. Inoue

    Interpreting filtration-based suffusion criteria using micro-computed tomography and laboratory filter tests
    H.F. Taylor, C. O’Sullivan & W.W. Sim

    Management of scour/erosion and sediment (including hazard management and sedimentation in dams and reservoirs)

    Alleviation of the scouring problem downstream of dam spillways through a reversed cross-jet flow dissipator
    A.D.A. Alghwail

    Detecting scour and liquefaction using OBS sensors
    H. An, L. Cheng, M. Zhao, G. Tang & S. Draper

    Lime treated soil erodibility investigated by EFA erosion testing
    A. Bennabi, G. Herrier & D. Lesueur

    Simplified comprehensive scour model compared to erodibility index method
    E. Bollaert

    Rock scour in Australia: Some latest Queensland experiences
    E. Bollaert, E. Lesleighter, S. McComber, P. Bozorgmehr, L. Fahey & D. Scriven

    Scour potential at Laouzas Dam
    E. Bollaert, F. Morel, B. Blancher & P. Lucquiaud

    The borehole erosion test
    J.-L. Briaud, M. Chedid & A. Shidlovskaya

    Research to improve the applicability of ICOLD Bulletin 164 on internal erosion
    R. Bridle

    Assessing the risks associated with internal erosion phenomena in aging embankment dams: A New Zealand perspective
    K.A. Crawford-Flett & J.J.M. Haskell

    CARDigues: An integrated tool for levee system diagnosis and assessment
    E. Durand, J. Maurin, B. Bridoux & A. Boulay

    Lime treatment of slightly clayey coarse soil for the control of internal erosion by suffusion
    R. Elandaloussi, A. Bennabi, J.-C. Dupla, J. Canou, A. Benamar & P. Gotteland

    The human factor in an effective structure management system
    S. Hand, L. Caldwell & J. Scannell

    Surface erosion countermeasures incorporating geotextiles
    M. Heibaum

    Effects of transitions and objects on the erodibility of grass revetments on dikes
    G. Hoffmans, D. Stuparu, A. van Hoven & A. Labrujere

    Hydraulic study on scouring downstream of Funagira Dam spillway apron (Japan)
    Y. Kitamura & S. Takagi

    Overflow erosion on mixed kaolin-sand embankments
    F. Lachaussee, D. Pham Van Bang, V. Vidal, C. Chevalier, O. Ndoye, F. Szymkiewicz, C. Minatchy, F. Martineau & K. Watanabe

    Dikes reinforced by deep mixing techniques—long term properties
    A. Le Kouby, C. Chevalier & L. Saussaye

    Investigation of sediment accumulation in Nubia Lake, using RS/GIS
    A.M. Negm & M.A. Elsahabi

    Towards quantifying rate of scour using the erodibility index method: Case study
    A.J. Rock, G.W. Annandale & J.D. Higgins

    Induced shear stress measurement in overtopped floodwalls
    P. Safarian Bahri, A. Osouli, D. Molohon & F. Lagunas

    Prediction of scour in overtopped floodwalls using JET and EFA
    P. Safarian Bahri, A. Osouli & E. Stendback

    Influence of uncertainties in internal erosion assessments of existing embankment dams
    M. Smith

    Application of wireless tracer GPRS riverbed scour monitoring for disaster warning
    C.C. Su & H.C. Yang

    Continuous grid monitoring to optimize sedimentation management
    T. Van Hoestenberghe, R. Vanthillo, P. Heidinger, J. Dornstadter, N. Dezillie & N. Van Ransbeeck

    River and estuarine erosion including scour around structures

    Mutual interference of bridge piers placed in staggered arrangement on scour depth
    M. Beg

    Estimation of scour for bridges in Illinois
    R. Chaulagai, P. Safarian Bahri & A. Osouli

    Prototype measuring of erosion and currents under the keel of a sailing ship in a canal
    K. Dorst, D.J. Meys, M. Schroevers & H.J. Verheij

    Hydrodynamic effects of debris blockage and scour on masonry bridges: Towards experimental modelling
    M. Ebrahimi, P. Kripakaran, S. Djordjević, G. Tabor, R. Kahraman, D.M. Prodanović & S. Arthur

    Screening methodology for bank erosion estimation at pipeline watercourse crossings
    G. Ferris & S. Newton

    Experimental study of scour around a complex pier with elliptical pile-cap
    P. Gautam, T.I. Eldho & M.R. Behera

    Bridge scour protection
    M. Hawkswood & M. King

    A simple method for estimating flood discharge in gravel-bed channels with varied riverbed level
    J.-H. Hong, W.-D. Guo, H.-W. Wang & P.-H. Yeh

    A case of severe channel-morphology change due to human influences in the Touqian River, Taiwan
    M.-W. Huang, K.-W. Li, J.-J. Liao, Y.-W. Pan & D.-H. Lee

    Shallow foundations for the support of vertical-wall bridge abutments: Interaction between riprap and contraction scour
    C. Huang, O. Suaznabar, Z. Xie, J. Shen, N. Tsou, C. Lin & K. Kerenyi

    Scour hole development in river beds with mixed sand-clay-peat stratigraphy
    Y. Huismans, G. van Velzen, T.S.D. O’Mahoney, G. Hoffmans & A.P. Wiersma

    Numerical analysis of bed elevation and bank line changes at the confluence of Nakdong and Geumho Rivers in Korea
    E.K. Jang & U. Ji

    Analytical design for stable channel geometry of Naesung Stream in Korea
    U. Ji & E.K. Jang

    An experimental study of live-bed scour at circular pier in covered flow
    O. Lauva & A. Radice

    Flood threshold value for bridge scour prediction and warning
    F.-Z. Lee, J.-S. Lai, K.-C. Chang, Y.-B. Lin, H.-K. Chang, W.-D. Guo, Y.-C. Tan & C.-C. Huang

    Numerical simulations of bedrock erosion around the bridge
    C.T. Liao, K.C. Yeh, K.-W. Li, R.K. Jhong & K.W. Wu

    A model for scour around bridge piers caused by flood waves
    O. Link, A. Pizarro, C. Castillo, B. Ettmer & S. Manfreda

    Developments of low cost riverbank protection in Bangladesh
    K. Oberhagemann & A.M. Aminul Haque

    Bed morphology changes at river contractions
    G. Oliveto & M.C. Marino

    Small-scale physical modelling of scour at bridge piers with light-weight sediments
    S. Perrin, C. Keppers, S. Roux & E. Murphy

    The development of automated spatial and temporal measurement system for lab-scale local scour
    M. Porhemmat, W.H.M. Wan Mohtar & A. El-Shafie

    Physical modelling of debris flow deposits in contiguous confluences
    L.M. Stancanelli, E. Foti & S. Lanzoni

    A computational approach to the study of the stability of pier riprap at the Middle Fork Feather River
    O. Suaznabar, J. Shen, N. Tsou, C. Bojanowski, S. Lottes, K. Flora, F. Jalinoos & K. Kerenyi

    Experimental study of scour around bridge piers of different arrangements with same aspect ratio
    B.A. Vijayasree & T.I. Eldho

    Feature of the vortex and the jet flows around and inside the three-row pile group
    A.V. Voskobijnyk, V.A. Voskoboinick, O.A. Voskoboinyk, L.M. Tereshchenko & I.A. Khizha

    Pressure fluctuations on the scour surface before prismatic pier
    V.A. Voskoboinick, A.V. Voskoboinick, O.O. Areshkovych & O.A. Voskoboinyk

    The influence of upstream weir slope on live-bed scour at submerged weir
    L. Wang, B.W. Melville & H. Friedrich

    Effect of densimetric Froude number on local bridge pier scour
    P. Williams, R. Balachandar & T. Bolisetti

    Incipient motion of sediment in rectangular open-channel flow with a submerged rigid vegetation zone
    W. Xue, S. Wu, X. Wu, J. Zhou & J. Dai

    Sediment transport: Grain scale and continuum scale

    Feed-back on the development of a small scale contact erosion test in the laboratory (characteristic size ~30 cm)
    R. Beguin, P. Pinettes, C. Picault, L. Duchesne & J.-R. Courivaud

    Local mechanisms of cohesive soil erosion
    F. Brunier-Coulin, P. Cuellar & P. Philippe

    Changes in soil deformation and shear strength by internal erosion
    C. Chen, L.M. Zhang & D.S. Chang

    Core crack-filling by upstream gap-graded soils in zoned dams
    R. Correia dos Santos, L. Caldeira & E. Maranha das Neves

    Micromechanical features of jet erosion—a numerical perspective
    P. Cuellar, L.-H. Luu, P. Philippe, F. Brunier-Coulin, N. Benahmed, S. Bonelli, J.-Y. Delenne & J. Ngoma

    The importance of permeability in granular filter design and control
    F. Delgado-Ramos, D. Escudero-Merino & C. Olalla

    Experiments on submerged slope erosion under unsteady water head
    X. Liang, L. Xie & Y. Zhu

    Scour of soil with dynamics interactions among soil-water induced by jet flow
    T. Matsuda, K. Maeda & A. Yamaguchi

    The hydrodynamics of a recirculating (O-tube) flume
    H. Mohr, S. Draper, D.J. White, L. Cheng, H. An & Q. Zhang

    Development of a new submersible test to characterise the erosion of soils and sediments
    O. Ndoye, C. Chevalier, P. Reiffsteck, C. Minatchy, S. Fanelli & D. Pham Van Bang

    Mechanics and simulations of the groundsill damage due to the impacts from pebbles/cobbles
    Y.-W. Pan, K.-P. Leong, J.-J. Liao & C.S. Ku

    Modification of an erodibility category limit for the pocket erodometer
    R. Rahimnejad & P.S.K. Ooi

    Experimental investigations of critical hydraulic gradients for a soil prone to suffusion
    M.R. Salehi Sadaghiani, K.J. Witt & B. Odenwald

    Stability of wide-graded granular filters under oscillatory flow
    D. Schurenkamp, H. Oumeraci & J. Kayser

    Relationship between soil erodibility and engineering properties
    I. Shafii, J.-L. Briaud, H.C. Chen & A. Shidlovskaya

    Calibration of erodibility testing devices for bridge design support
    H. Shan, O. Wiblishauser, C. Lin, J. Shen & K. Kerenyi

    Measurement of constriction size distributions using three grain-scale methods
    T. Shire, C. O’Sullivan, H.F. Taylor & W.W. Sim

    Non-dimensional formulization of the critical hydraulic head difference for seepage failure of soil in front of sheet piles
    T. Tanaka & T. Miki

    The consistency of laboratory jet erosion tests performed on undisturbed samples
    J.L. Wibowo & B.A. Robbins

    Development of experimental methodology of investigating the relative and interactive effects of physicochemical properties of permeating fluids on incipient motion of granular particles
    M. Xiao & B.T. Adams

    Variation of small strain stiffness for piping-influenced Toyoura sand
    Y. Yang, R. Kuwano & X. Chao

    A field erodibility testing device for scour evaluation of bridges
    M. Zinner, T. Meyer, H. Shan, J. Shen, B. Bergendahl & K. Kerenyi

    Terrestrial scour and erosion

    Investigation into the multiple recent sinkholes in Pokhara, Nepal
    R. Kuwano, T. Kiyota, R.M. Pokhrel, T. Katagiri, T. Ikeda, Y. Yagiura, T. Yoshikawa & J. Kuwano

    Model tests on subsurface cavities below road pavement due to sand eruption from the liquefied ground
    J. Kuwano, R. Kuwano & Y. Horiuchi

    Application of SWAT model to estimate the annual runoff and sediment of Duhok reservoir watershed
    M.E. Mohammad, N. Al-Ansari & S. Knutsson


    Dr John Harris is a technical director at HR Wallingford and is both a chartered engineer and chartered marine scientist with specialist skills in numerical hydrodynamic modelling, turbulence and sediment transport. John has over 20 years’ experience in the application and development of turbulence models for modelling wave and wave-current boundary layer interaction in the coastal zone and over 21 years’ experience in the application of numerical models for river, coastal and estuarine studies. He also has specialist knowledge of hydraulic, sediment transport and wave modelling techniques, and in particular scour and boundary layer processes and is one of the UK’s authorities on marine scour. To date John has worked on various aspects of wind farm developments and has worked on around 80% of built or currently planned wind farms in the UK and is the co-author of several industry guidance documents including "Dynamics Of Scour Pits And Scour Protection" and the COWRIE "Modelling Best Practice Guide". In December 2004 he gave an invited lecture to the Danish Society of Hydraulic Engineers at the University Aalborg entitled "Offshore wind farms a UK perspective".

    Professor Richard Whitehouse is a technical director at HR Wallingford with considerable experience in assessing and modelling the long-term evolution of estuaries and coasts. He has worked on large-scale physical modelling studies of currents, waves, sediment transport and scour at HR Wallingford since 1988, and is responsible for the Fast Flow Facility. His expertise is in coastal and seabed processes, wave/current interaction, sediment transport, scour and scour protection work for marine structures. He is currently Chair of TC213 of ISSMGE on Scour and Erosion and heads the Scour Research Programme at HR Wallingford on scour prediction and scour protection in the marine environment. He has experience of delivering regional coastal and seabed process studies combining expert assessments of field observations and computer modelling. Richard led the Defra/Environment Agency project ‘Characterisation and prediction of large-scale, long-term change of coastal geomorphological behaviours’ and is a Principal Investigator in the NERC BLUEcoast project on coastal processes and coastal recovery. He has knowledge of the key physical processes and responses of placing foundations in the marine environment and wrote the textbook ‘Scour At Marine Structures’.