1st Edition

Second-Language Acquisition

Edited By Lourdes Ortega
    2400 Pages
    by Routledge

    Second-language acquisition was born in the late 1960s as an interdisciplinary enterprise that borrowed equally from the feeder fields of linguistics, language teaching, child language acquisition, and psychology. Since then, it has expanded considerably in scope and methodology to the point that for many, by the end of the twentieth century, it had finally reached its coming of age as an autonomous discipline, a discipline that today is more than ever undergoing change, renovation, and expansion.

    This six-volume collection, a new title in Routledge’s Critical Concepts in Linguistics series, offers a comprehensive survey of this burgeoning field, its accumulated findings and proposed theories, its developed research paradigms, and its pending questions for the future. Including both classical and cutting-edge research, the collected materials offer a cogent and nuanced panoramic of the past, present, and future of second-language acquisition research.


    Part 1: Historical Foundations

    1. S. P. Corder, ‘The Significance of Learners’ Errors’, International Review of Applied Linguistics, 1967, 5, 161–70.

    2. L. Selinker, ‘Interlanguage’, International Review of Applied Linguistics, 1972, 10, 219–31.

    3. J. Schachter, ‘An Error in Error Analysis’, Language Learning, 1974, 24, 205–14.

    4. R. Schmidt, ‘Interaction, Acculturation, and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence’, in N. Wolfson and E. Judd (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition (Newbury House, 1983), pp. 137–74.

    5. M. Pienemann, ‘Psychological Constraints on the Teachability of Languages’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1984, 6, 186–214.

    6. C. Chaudron, ‘A Descriptive Model of Discourse in the Corrective Treatment of Learners’ Errors’, Language Learning, 1977, 27, 29–46.

    7. M. Swain, ‘Communicative Competence: Some Roles of Comprehensible Input and Comprehensible Output and its Development’, in S. M. Gass and C. G. Madden (eds.), Input in Second Language Acquisition (Newbury House, 1985), pp. 235–53.

    Part 2: Theoretical Foundations

    8. M. Canale and M. Swain, ‘Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing’, Applied Linguistics, 1980, 1, 1–47.

    9. M. H. Long, ‘The Least a Second Language Acquisition Theory Needs to Explain’, TESOL Quarterly, 1990, 24, 4, 649–66.

    10. R. Bley-Vroman, ‘The Logical Problem of Foreign Language Learning’, Linguistic Analysis, 1990, 20, 3–49.

    11. V. Cook, ‘Evidence for Multicompetence’, Language Learning, 1992, 42, 557–91.

    Part 3: Methodological Foundations

    12. J. M. Norris and L. Ortega, ‘Defining and Measuring SLA’, in C. Doughty and M. H. Long (eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (Blackwell, 2003), pp. 717–61.


    Part 4: Age

    13. J. S. Johnson and E. L. Newport, ‘Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language’, Cognitive Psychology, 1989, 21, 60–99.

    14. G. Ioup et al., ‘Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: A Case of Successful Adult SLA in a Naturalistic Environment’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1994, 16, 73–98.

    Part 5: Crosslinguistic Influences

    15. E. Kellerman, ‘The Empirical Evidence for the Influence of the L1 in Interlanguage’, in A. Davies, C. Criper, and A. P. R. Howatt (eds.), Interlanguage (Edinburgh University Press, 1984), pp. 98–122.

    16. S. Jarvis, ‘Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Investigation of Conceptual Transfer’, Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2007, 4, 43–71.

    Part 6: Environment and Cognition

    17. R. Schmidt and S. Frota, ‘Developing Basic Conversational Ability in a Second Language: A Case Study of an Adult Learner of Portuguese’, in R. R. Day (ed.), Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition (Newbury House, 1986), pp. 237–326.

    18. M. H. Long, ‘The Role of the Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition’, in W. Ritchie and T. Bhatia (eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (Academic Press, 1996), pp. 413–68.

    Part 7: Variability

    19. T. Pica, R. Kanagy, and J. Falodun, ‘Choosing and Using Communication Tasks for Second Language Instruction and Research’, in G. Crookes and S. Gass (eds.), Tasks and Language Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice (Multilingual Matters, 1993), pp. 9–34.

    20. M. Verspoor, W. Lowie, and M. van Dijk, ‘Variability in L2 Development from a Dynamic Systems Perspective’, Modern Language Journal, 2008, 92, 214–31.

    Part 8: Fossilization

    21. Z. Han, ‘Fossilization: Five Central Issues’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2004, 14, 212–42.

    Part 9: Socio-Psychological Factors

    22. H. H. Stern, What Can We Learn from the Good Language Learner?’, Canadian Modern Language Review, 1975, 31, 304–18.

    23. L. Wong Fillmore, ‘Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition’, in C. Fillmore, D. Kempler, and W. Wang (eds.), Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior (Academic Press, 1979), pp. 203–28.

    24. Z. Dornyei, ‘The L2 Motivational Self System’, in Z. Dornyei and E. Ushioda (eds.), Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self (Multilingual Matters, 2009), pp. 9–42.


    Part 10: Difference and Access

    25. H. Clahsen and P. Muysken, ‘The Availability of Universal Grammar to Adult and Child Learners: A Study of the Acquisition of German Word Order’, Second Language Research, 1986, 2, 93–119.

    26. L. White, ‘The "Pro-Drop" Parameter in Adult Second Language Acquisition’, Language Learning, 1985, 35, 47–62.

    27. M. Thomas, ‘Universal Grammar and the Interpretation of Reflexives in a Second Language’, Language, 1991, 67, 211–39.

    28. J. Meisel, ‘The Acquisition of the Syntax of Negation in French and German: Contrasting First and Second Language Development’, Second Language Research, 1997, 13, 227–63.

    Part 11: The Disputed Roles of Transfer and Impairment in the Initial State

    29. A. Vainikka and M. Young-Scholten, ‘Gradual Development of L2 Phrase Structure’, Second Language Research, 1996, 12, 7–39.

    30. S. D. Epstein, S. Flynn, and G. Martohardjono, ‘The Strong Continuity Hypothesis: Some Evidence Concerning Functional Categories in Adult L2 Acquisition’, in S. Flynn, G. Martohardjono, and W. O’Neil (eds.), The Generative Study of Second Language Acquisition (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998), pp. 61–86.

    31. B. Schwartz and R. Sprouse, ‘L2 Cognitive States and the Full Transfer/Full Access Model’, Second Language Research, 1996, 12, 40–72.

    Part 12: Ultimate Attainment in the Final/Steady State

    32. D. Lardiere, ‘Case and Tense in the "Fossilized" Steady State’, Second Language Research, 1998, 14, 1–12.

    33. P. Prevost and L. White, ‘Missing Surface Inflection or Impairment in Second Language Acquisition? Evidence from Tense and Agreement’, Second Language Research, 2000, 16, 103–33.

    34. R. Hawkins, ‘Revisiting wh-Movement: The Availability of an Uninterpretable [wh] Feature in Interlanguage Grammars’, in L. Dekydtspotter, R. A. Sprouse, and A. Liljestrand (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (Cascadilla Press, 2005), pp. 124–37).

    Part 13: Interfaces

    35. S. A. Montrul, ‘Incomplete Acquisition as a Feature of L2 and Bilingual Grammars’, in R. Slabakova, S. Montrul, and P. Prevost (eds.), Inquiries in Language Development: Studies in Honor of Lydia White (John Benjamins, 2006), pp. 335–59.

    36. L. Dekydtspotter, B. Anderson, and R. A. Sprouse, ‘Syntax-Semantics in English-French Interlanguage: Advancing Second Language Epistemology’, in D. Ayoun (ed.), The Handbook of French Applied Linguistics (John Benjamins, 2007), pp. 75–102.

    37. A. Belletti, E. Bennati, and A. Sorace, ‘Theoretical and Developmental Issues in the Syntax of Subjects: Evidence from Near-Native Italian’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 2007, 25, 657–89.

    Part 14: Processing Accounts of Universal Grammar

    38. H. Clahsen and C. Felser, ‘How Native-Like is Non-Native Language Processing?’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2006, 10, 564–70.

    39. W. O’Grady, ‘The Syntax of Quantification in SLA: An Emergentist Approach’, in M. G. O’Brien, C. Shea, and J. Archibald (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (Cascadilla Press, 2007), pp. 98–113.


    Part 15: Foundational Themes

    40. R. Schmidt, ‘The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning’, Applied Linguistics, 1990, 11, 129–58.

    41. R. Ellis, ‘Measuring Implicit and Explicit Knowledge of a Second Language: A Psychometric Study’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2005, 27, 141–72.

    42. N. C. Ellis, ‘Frequency Effects in Language Processing’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2005, 24, 143–88.

    43. L. Osterhout et al., ‘Second Language Learning and Changes in the Brain’, Journal of Neurolinguistics, 2008, 21, 509–21.

    Part 16: Attention, Consciousness, and Awareness

    44. B. VanPatten, ‘Attending to Form and Content in the Input: An Experiment in Consciousness’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1990, 12, 287–301.

    45. R. Tomlin and V. Villa, ‘Attention in Cognitive Science and SLA’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1994, 16, 183–204.

    46. P. Robinson, ‘Generalizability and Automaticity of Second Language Learning under Implicit, Incidental, Enhanced, and Instructed Conditions’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1997, 19, 233–47.

    47. R. P. Leow and M. A. Bowles, ‘Attention and Awareness in SLA’, in C. Sanz (ed.), Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition (Georgetown University Press, 2005), pp. 179–203.

    Part 17: Individual Differences Across Cognitive Abilities

    48. J. B. Carroll, ‘Twenty-Five Years of Research on Foreign Language Aptitude’, in K. Diller (ed.), Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude (Newbury House, 1981), pp. 83–118.

    49. M. Wesche, ‘Language Aptitude Measures in Streaming, Matching Students with Methods, and Diagnosis of Learning Problems’, in K. Diller (ed.), Individual Differences and Universals in Language Leaning Aptitude (Newbury House, 1981), pp. 119–39.

    50. P. Skehan, ‘Cluster Analysis and the Identification of Learner Types’, in V. Cook (ed.), Experimental Approaches to Second Language Learning (Pergamon, 1986), pp. 81–94.

    51. P. Skehan, ‘The Relationship Between Native and Foreign Language Learning Ability: Educational and Linguistic Factors’, in H. W. Dechert (ed.), Current Trends in European Second Language Acquisition Research (Multilingual Matters, 1989), pp. 83–106.

    52. M. Harrington and M. Sawyer, ‘L2 Working Memory Capacity and L2 Reading Skill’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1992, 14, 112–21.

    53. A. Mackey et al., ‘Individual Differences in Working Memory, Noticing of Interactional Feedback, and L2 Development’, in P. Robinson (ed.), Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning (John Benjamins, 2002), pp. 181–209.


    Part 18: Theoretical Contributions

    54. A. Pavlenko and J. P. Lantolf, ‘Second Language Learning as Participation and the (Re)construction of Selves’, in J. P. Lantolf (ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 155–77.

    55. A. Firth and J. Wagner, ‘On Discourse, Communication, and (Some) Fundamental Concepts in SLA Research’, Modern Language Journal, 1997, 81, 285–300.

    56. S. N. Sridhar, ‘A Reality Check for SLA Theories’, TESOL Quarterly, 1994, 28, 800–5.

    Part 19: Sociolinguistic Explorations

    57. E. Tarone and G. Q. Liu, ‘Situational Context, Variation, and Second Language Acquisition Theory’, in G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.), Principles and Practice in the Study of Language (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 107–24.

    58. M. Siegal, ‘The Role of Learner Subjectivity in Second Language Sociolinguistic Competency: Western Women Learning Japanese’, Applied Linguistics, 1996, 17, 356–82.

    Part 20: Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory of Mind and L2 Learning

    59. W. Frawley and J. P. Lantolf, ‘Second Language Discourse: A Vygotskian Perspective’, Applied Linguistics, 1985, 6, 19–44.

    60. P. Coughlan and P. Duff, ‘Same Task, Different Activities: Analysis of an SLA Task from an Activity Theory Perspective’, in J. Lantolf and G. Appel (eds.), Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research (Ablex, 1994), pp. 173–94.

    61. M. Swain, ‘Languaging, Agency and Collaboration in Advanced Second Language Learning’, in H. Byrnes (ed.), Advanced Language Learning: The Contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky (Continuum, 2006), pp. 95–108.

    Part 21: Conversation Analysis for Second-Language Acquisition

    62. A. Firth, ‘The Discursive Accomplishment of Normality: On "Lingua Franca" English and Conversation Analysis’, Journal of Pragmatics, 1996, 26, 237–59.

    63. C. E. Brouwer and J. Wagner, ‘Developmental Issues in Second Language Conversation’, Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2004, 1, 1, 29–47.

    Part 22: Sociocultural Educational Perspectives

    64. B. Norton Peirce, ‘Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning’, TESOL Quarterly, 1995, 29, 9–31.

    65. S. L. McKay and S.-L. C. Wong, ‘Multiple Discourses, Multiple Identities: Investment and Agency in Second-Language Learning among Chinese Adolescent Immigrant Students’, Harvard Educational Review, 1996, 66, 577–608.

    66. P. Duff, ‘Pop Culture and ESL Students: Intertextuality, Identity, and Participation in Classroom Discussions’, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 2002, 45, 482–7.

    67. L. Harklau, ‘From the "Good Kids" to the "Worst": Representations of English Language Learners across Educational Settings’, TESOL Quarterly, 2000, 34, 35–67.

    68. C. Kinginger, ‘Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore: Foreign Language Learning and Identity Reconstruction’, in A. Pavlenko and A. Blackledge (eds.), Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts (Multilingual Matters, 2004), pp. 219–42.

    69. S. E. Thorne, ‘Artifacts and Cultures-of-Use in Intercultural Communication’, Language Learning & Technology, 2003, 7, 2, 38–67.


    Part 23: Classroom Processes

    70. M. Frohlich, N. Spada, and P. Allen, ‘Differences in the Communicative Orientation of L2 Classrooms’, TESOL Quarterly, 1985, 19, 27–57.

    71. R. Lyster and L. Ranta, ‘Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake: Negotiation of Form in Communicative Classrooms’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1997, 19, 37–66.

    72. J. Williams, ‘Learner-Generated Attention to Form’, Language Learning, 1999, 49, 583–625.

    Part 24: Types of Instruction

    73. B. VanPatten and T. Cadierno, ‘Input Processing and Second Language Acquisition: A Role for Instruction’, Modern Language Journal, 1993, 77, 45–57.

    74. L. Loschky and R. Brey-Vroman, ‘Grammar and Task-Based Methodology’, in G. Crookes and S. Gass (eds.), Tasks and Language Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice (Multilingual Matters, 1993), pp. 123–67.

    75. R. DeKeyser, ‘Beyond Explicit Rule Learning: Automatizing Second Language Morphosyntax’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1997, 19, 195–221.

    76. H. Nicholas, P. M. Lightbown, and N. Spada, ‘Recasts as Feedback to Language Learners’, Language Learning, 2001, 51, 719–58.

    77. M. H. Long and P. Robinson, ‘Focus on Form: Theory, Research, and Practice’, in C. Doughty and J. Williams (eds.), Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 15–41.

    78. J. M. Norris and L. Ortega, ‘Does Type of Instruction Make a Difference? Substantive Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review’, Language Learning, 2001, 51, 157–213.

    Part 25: Optimal L2 Instruction

    79. R. Ellis, ‘Principles of Instructed Language Learning’, System, 2005, 33, 209–24.

    80. T. M. Derwing and M. J. Munro, ‘Second Language Accent and Pronunciation Teaching: A Research-Based Approach’, TESOL Quarterly, 2005, 39, 379–97.

    81. B. Laufer, ‘Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning: The Fault in the "Default Hypothesis"’, in A. Housen and M. Pierrard (eds.), Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition (Mouton de Gruyter, 2005), pp. 286–303.

    82. G. Kasper and K. Rose, ‘The Role of Instruction in Learning Second Language Pragmatics’, Language Learning, 2002, 52, 1, 237–73.


    Lourdes Ortega is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Hawai'i, USA.