Secondary Steelmaking: Principles and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Secondary Steelmaking

Principles and Applications, 1st Edition

By Ahindra Ghosh

CRC Press

344 pages

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pub: 2000-12-13
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Description

The steelmaking industry and its customers have benefited enormously from the many significant technological advances of the last thirty years. As their customers become ever more quality conscious, however, steelmakers must continue their efforts to minimize harmful impurities, minimize as well as modify harmful nonmetallic inclusions and achieve the optimum casting temperature, content of alloying elements, and homogeneity. These improvements can come only through the diverse refinement processes that together comprise "secondary steelmaking."

Secondary Steelmaking: Principles and Applications reviews the scientific fundamentals and explores the various unit processes associated with secondary steelmaking. Synthesizing the science and its technology, the author examines the relevant reactions and phenomena, presents an integrated picture of "clean steel" manufacture, and provides an overview of the mathematical modeling important to process research.

Solved examples, ample references, and summaries of recent technological advances mean that the steelmaking industry finally has a comprehensive reference, in English, for the all-important secondary steelmaking processes. Students and instructors, steelmakers and R & D engineers will welcome the author's readable style, his knowledge, and his expertise, all gleaned from decades of experience in research, academic, and industrial settings.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

History of Steelmaking

Trends in Steel Quality Demands

Scientific Fundamentals

Process Control

METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS

introduction

First and Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chemical Equilibrium

DG o for Oxide Systems

Activity- Composition Relationships:

Concentrated Solutions

Activity - Composition Relationships :

Dilute Solutions

Chemical Potential And Equilibrium

Slag Basicity and Capacities

FLUID FLOW

Basics of Fluid Flow

Fluid Flow in Steel Melts in Gas- Stirred Ladles

MIXING, MASS TRANSFER AND KINETICS

Introduction

Mixing in Steel Melts in Gas-Stirred Ladles

Kinetics of Reactions amongst Phases

Mass Transfer in Gas -Stirred Ladle

Mixing vs. Mass Transfer Control

DEOXIDATION OF LIQUID STEEL

Thermodynamics of Deoxidation of Molten Steel

Kinetics of Deoxidation of Molten Steel

Deoxidation in Industry

DEGASSING AND DECARBURIZATION OF LIQUID STEEL

Introduction

Thermodynamics of Reactions in Vacuum

Degassing

Fluid Flow and Mixing in Vacuum Degassing

Rates of Vacuum Degassing and Decarburization

Decarburization for Ultra - Low Carbon and Stainless Steel

DESULFURIZATION IN SECONDARY STEELMAKING

Introduction

Thermodynamic Aspects

Desulfurization with only Top Slag

Injection Metallurgy for Desulfurization

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

Introduction

Gas Absorption During Tapping and Teeming from Surrounding Atmosphere

Changes of Temperature of Molten Steel during Secondary Steelmaking

Phosphorous Control in Secondary Steelmaking

Nitrogen Control in Steelmaking

INCLUSIONS AND INCLUSION MODIFICATION

Introduction

Influence of Inclusions on Mechanical Properties of Steel

Inclusion Identification and Cleanliness Assessment

Origin of Non - Metallic Inclusions

Formation of Inclusions During Solidification

Inclusion Modification

CLEAN STEEL TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Summary of Earlier Chapters

Refractories for Secondary Steelmaking

Tundish Metallurgy for Clean Steel

MODELING OF SECONDARY STEELMAKING PROCESSES

( Contributed by Dr. D. Mazumdar)

Introduction

Modeling Techniques

Modeling of Turbulent Fluid Flow Phenomena

Modeling of Material And Thermal Mixing Phenomena

Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer Between Solid Additions and Liquid Steel

Concluding Remarks

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC020000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Manufacturing
TEC023000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Metallurgy