1st Edition

Secondary Steelmaking
Principles and Applications




ISBN 9780849302640
Published December 13, 2000 by CRC Press
344 Pages

USD $200.00

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Book Description

The steelmaking industry and its customers have benefited enormously from the many significant technological advances of the last thirty years. As their customers become ever more quality conscious, however, steelmakers must continue their efforts to minimize harmful impurities, minimize as well as modify harmful nonmetallic inclusions and achieve the optimum casting temperature, content of alloying elements, and homogeneity. These improvements can come only through the diverse refinement processes that together comprise "secondary steelmaking."

Secondary Steelmaking: Principles and Applications reviews the scientific fundamentals and explores the various unit processes associated with secondary steelmaking. Synthesizing the science and its technology, the author examines the relevant reactions and phenomena, presents an integrated picture of "clean steel" manufacture, and provides an overview of the mathematical modeling important to process research.

Solved examples, ample references, and summaries of recent technological advances mean that the steelmaking industry finally has a comprehensive reference, in English, for the all-important secondary steelmaking processes. Students and instructors, steelmakers and R & D engineers will welcome the author's readable style, his knowledge, and his expertise, all gleaned from decades of experience in research, academic, and industrial settings.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
History of Steelmaking
Trends in Steel Quality Demands
Scientific Fundamentals
Process Control
METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS
introduction
First and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibrium
DG o for Oxide Systems
Activity- Composition Relationships:
Concentrated Solutions
Activity - Composition Relationships :
Dilute Solutions
Chemical Potential And Equilibrium
Slag Basicity and Capacities
FLUID FLOW
Basics of Fluid Flow
Fluid Flow in Steel Melts in Gas- Stirred Ladles
MIXING, MASS TRANSFER AND KINETICS
Introduction
Mixing in Steel Melts in Gas-Stirred Ladles
Kinetics of Reactions amongst Phases
Mass Transfer in Gas -Stirred Ladle
Mixing vs. Mass Transfer Control
DEOXIDATION OF LIQUID STEEL
Thermodynamics of Deoxidation of Molten Steel
Kinetics of Deoxidation of Molten Steel
Deoxidation in Industry
DEGASSING AND DECARBURIZATION OF LIQUID STEEL
Introduction
Thermodynamics of Reactions in Vacuum
Degassing
Fluid Flow and Mixing in Vacuum Degassing
Rates of Vacuum Degassing and Decarburization
Decarburization for Ultra - Low Carbon and Stainless Steel
DESULFURIZATION IN SECONDARY STEELMAKING
Introduction
Thermodynamic Aspects
Desulfurization with only Top Slag
Injection Metallurgy for Desulfurization
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
Introduction
Gas Absorption During Tapping and Teeming from Surrounding Atmosphere
Changes of Temperature of Molten Steel during Secondary Steelmaking
Phosphorous Control in Secondary Steelmaking
Nitrogen Control in Steelmaking
INCLUSIONS AND INCLUSION MODIFICATION
Introduction
Influence of Inclusions on Mechanical Properties of Steel
Inclusion Identification and Cleanliness Assessment
Origin of Non - Metallic Inclusions
Formation of Inclusions During Solidification
Inclusion Modification
CLEAN STEEL TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Summary of Earlier Chapters
Refractories for Secondary Steelmaking
Tundish Metallurgy for Clean Steel
MODELING OF SECONDARY STEELMAKING PROCESSES
( Contributed by Dr. D. Mazumdar)
Introduction
Modeling Techniques
Modeling of Turbulent Fluid Flow Phenomena
Modeling of Material And Thermal Mixing Phenomena
Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer Between Solid Additions and Liquid Steel
Concluding Remarks

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