240 pages | 3 B/W Illus.
Little is known about how far-reaching decisions in UN Security Council sanctions committees are made. Developing a novel committee governance concept and using examples drawn from sanctions imposed on Iraq, Al-Qaida, Congo, Sudan and Iran, this book shows that Council members tend to follow the will of the powerful, whereas sanctions committee members often decide according to the rules. This is surprising since both Council and committees are staffed by the same member states.
Offering a fascinating account of Security Council micro-politics and decision-making processes on sanctions, this rigorous comparative and theory-driven analysis treats the Council and its sanctions committees as distinguishable entities that may differ in decision practice despite having the same members. Drawing extensively on primary documents, diplomatic cables, well-informed press coverage, reports by close observers and extensive interviews with committee members, Council diplomats and sanctions experts, it contrasts with the conventional wisdom on decision-making within these bodies, which suggests that the powerful permanent members would not accept rule-based decisions against their interests.
This book will be of interest to policy practitioners and scholars working in the broad field of international organizations and international relations theory as well as those specializing in sanctions, international law, the Security Council and counter-terrorism.
Chapter 1 - Security Council Sanctions Governance: The Power and Limits of Rules
The Argument: How Committee Governance Triggers Rule-Based Politics
Committee Governance and International Organizations
Methods and Outline of The Book
Chapter 2 - Committee Governance, Rules and Precedents
The Foundations of International Organizations
Committee Governance and The Power of Rules
The Constraints of Rule-Making
The Constraints of Rule Implementation
The Logic of Coordination Situations at The Committee Stage
Coordination Situations at Committee Stage Create Demand for Focal Points
The Logic of Committee Governance in The Security Council
Research Design and Observable Implications
Chapter 3 - Security Council Sanctions Regimes: Complex Governance Entities
The Security Council as Master of Its Sanctions Regimes
The Sanctions Committees as Implementing Agents
The Panels of Experts as Reflexive Component
The Un Secretariat’s "Sanctions Branch" As Administrative Component
The Focal Point and The Office of The Ombudsperson as Individual Complaints Mechanisms
Chapter 4 - Disarming Iraq – Governing Comprehensive Sanctions Under Siege
The Political Origins of The Iraq Sanctions Regime
The Beginnings: Setting and Enforcing Rules on The Issue of Foodstuffs In "Humanitarian Circumstances"
After the Gulf War: The Need for Precedents On "No-Objection Items"
Quality of Requests, Not Power Determines Committee Decisions
The Power of Rules and Precedents in Governing Flight Approvals
Chapter 5 - Terrorist or Scapegoat? Targeted Sanctions and The Threat of Al-Qaida And the Taliban
The Political Origins of The Al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions Regime
Laissez-Faire Decision-Making Without Criteria, Rules and Procedures
Criteria, Rules and Procedures Trigger Rule-Based Governance on The Listing of Individuals and Entities
Stalemate Creates Demand for Delisting and Review Procedures
Deadlock on Taliban Prompts Division of The Sanctions Regime
The Ombudsperson as Safeguard for Rule-Based Governance
Chapter 6 - The Democratic Republic of The Congo – Targeted Sanctions and Civil War
The Political Origins of The Democratic Republic of The Congo Sanctions Regime
Targeting Individuals and Entities – No Listing Without Procedures
Decision Rules Provide Focal Points for Listing Requests Among the P3
Rwanda In the DRCi Committee: The Limits of Committee Governance
Chapter 7 - The Sudan – How the Committee Failed to Implement Targeted Sanctions
The Political Origins of The Sudan Sanctions Regime
The Creation of The Sudan Sanctions Regime
Down the Committee Route
Bypassing the Committee: The Prelude to Resolution 1672 (2006)
A Committee Without Consensus
Chapter 8 - The West Vs. Iran – Sanctions in The Context of Nuclear Non-Proliferation
The Political Origins of The Iran Sanctions Regime
Down the Council Route: Imposing Rounds of Sanctions Package
The Committee Route: Substantive Criteria and Independent Evidence Determine Committee Designations
The Alternative Route: Rule-Based Governance Through Opting For Nsg And Mtcr Lists Of Proliferation-Related Items
Chapter 9 - Conclusion: What Can We Learn from Committee Governance in The Security Council?
The Security Council as An International Organization