1st Edition

Sediment Transport Dynamics

By Weiming Wu Copyright 2024
    668 Pages 269 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book focuses on the fundamentals of sediment transport in surface waters. It covers sediment properties, open channel flows, sediment particle settling, incipient motion, bed forms, bed load, suspended load, total load, cohesive sediments, water-sediment two-phase flows, hyperconcentrated flows, debris flows, wave-induced sediment transport, turbidity currents, and physical modeling. Besides the primary context of river sedimentation, this book extensively covers sediment transport under coexisting waves and currents in coasts and estuaries, hyperconcentrated and debris flows in rivers, as well as turbidity currents in lakes, reservoirs, channels, and the ocean. It includes a chapter on the water-sediment two-phase flow theory, which is considered the basis of many sediment transport models. It introduces some special topics have that emerged in recent years, such as the transport of mixed cohesive and noncohesive sediments, biofilm-coated sediments, and infiltrated sand within gravel and cobble beds. The text merges classical and new knowledge of sediment transport from various sources in English and non-English literature and includes important contributions made by many scientists and engineers from all over the world. It balances the breadth, depth, fundamental importance, practical applicability, and future advancement of the covered knowledge, and can be used as a text and reference book. The chapters are arranged in a useful sequence for teaching purposes. Certain homework problems are prepared, which also highlight the important topics for instructors to select. Solutions to homework problems are available from the author by request.

    1. Introduction. 1.1 Origins of Sediments. 1.2 Classifications of Sediments. 1.3 Sediment Transport Processes and Problems. 1.4 Classifications of Water-Borne Sediment Loads. 1.5 Sediment Yields in the World’s Rivers. 1.6 Historical Development of Sediment Transport Dynamics. 1.7 Coverage of This Book. 2. Properties of Water and Sediment. 2.1 Physical Properties of Water. 2.2 Sediment Density and Specific Weight. 2.3 Mineral Composition of Sediments. 2.4 Electrochemical Properties of Sediment Particles. 2.5 Geometric Properties of Sediment Particles. 2.6 Size Gradation of Sediment Mixture. 2.7 Porosity and Dry Density of Sediment Deposit. 2.8 Geotechnical Properties of Sediment Deposit. 2.9 Physical Properties of Sediment-Laden Water. 3. Open Channel Flows. 3.1 Classifications of Open Channel Flows. 3.2 Basic Hydrodynamic Equations. 3.3 Turbulence Characteristics. 3.4 Velocity Profiles of Uniform Turbulent Flows. 3.5 Average Velocity and Boundary Shear Stress of Uniform Flows. 3.6 Three-Dimensional Flow Features. 3.7 Coherent Structures in Turbulent Shear Flows. 4. Settling of Sediment Particles. 4.1 Settling Process of Sediment Particles. 4.2 General Formula of Particle Settling Velocity. 4.3 Settling Velocity of Spherical Particles. 4.4 Settling Velocity of Sediment Particles. 4.5 Effects of Sediment Concentration on Settling Velocity. 4.6 Effects of Turbulence on Sediment Settling Velocity. 4.7 Measurements of Sediment Settling Velocity. 4.8 Relationship Between Fall and Nominal Diameters of Sediment Particles. 4.9 Time and Distance to Terminal Settling of Sediment Particles. Appendix 4.1 Settling Velocity of Common Natural Sediment Particles.  5. Incipient Motion of Sediments. 5.1 Drag and Lift Forces on Bed Sediment Particles. 5.2 Incipient Motion Thresholds of Individual Sediment Particles. 5.3 Approaches to Describing Incipient Motion of Bed Particle Ensembles. 5.4 Critical Average Velocity for the Incipient Motion of Uniform Sediments. 5.5 Critical Shear Stress for the Incipient Motion of Uniform Sediments. 5.6 Incipient Motion Thresholds of Nonuniform Sediments. 5.7 Incipient Motion Thresholds of Sediment Particles on a Steep Slope. 5.8 Other Factors Affecting the Incipient Motion of Sediment Particles. 5.9 Probabilities of Sediment Entrainment. Appendix 5.1 Comparison of Incipient Rolling, Sliding, and Lifting Thresholds of Spheres. Appendix 5.2 Comparison of Reference Thresholds of Sediment Incipient Motion. 6. Bed Forms. 6.1 Classifications of Bed Forms. 6.2 Development Mechanisms and Regimes of Bed Forms. 6.3 Dimensions and Speeds of Equilibrium Bed Forms. 6.4 Partition of Grain and Form Resistances. 6.5 Resistance Formulas of Sand-Bed Rivers. 6.6 Resistance Formulas for Gravel- and Cobble-Bed Rivers. 6.7 Comments on Movable Bed Roughness Formulas. 7. Bed-Load Transport. 7.1 Bed-Load Regimes. 7.2 Bed-Load Particle Dynamics. 7.3 Average Characteristics of Bed-Load Particle Motion. 7.4 Unisized Bed-Load Transport Capacity. 7.5 Multisized Bed-Load Transport Capacity. 7.6 Comparison of Bed-Load Formulas. 7.7 Effect of Steep Slope on Bed Load. 7.8 Fluctuations of Bed Load. 7.9 Measurements of Bed Load. 8. Suspended-Load Transport. 8.1 Suspended-Load Transport Processes. 8.2 Criteria of Incipient Suspension. 8.3 Time-Averaged Transport Equation for Suspended Load. 8.4 Vertical Distribution of Suspended-Load Concentration. 8.5 Depth-Averaged Concentration of Suspended Load. 8.6 Near-Bed Concentration of Suspended Load. 8.7 Transport Capacity of Suspended Load. 8.8 Nonequilibrium Transport of Suspended Load. 8.9 Measurements of Suspended Load. Appendix 8.1 Calculations of Einstein Integrals. 9. Total-Load Transport. 9.1 Total Transport Capacity of Bed-Material Load. 9.2 Fractional Transport Capacity of Bed-Material Load. 9.3 Comparison of Bed-Material Load Formulas. 9.4 Sediment Rating Curve. 9.5 Pickup Rate of Noncohesive Sediments. 9.6 Wash Load. 9.7 Infiltrated Sand Transport in Immobile Gravel and Cobble Beds. 10. Cohesive Sediment Transport. 10.1 Distinctive Features of Cohesive Sediments. 10.2 Settling and Deposition of Cohesive Sediments. 10.3 Erosion of Cohesive Sediments. 10.4 Exclusive Versus Continuous Erosion and Deposition. 10.5 Transport of Mixed Cohesive and Noncohesive Sediments. 10.6 Biological Effects on Sediment Transport. 10.7 Comments on Cohesive Sediment Transport. 11. Sediment-Laden Two-Phase Flows. 11.1 Two-Phase Perspective of Sediment-Laden Flows. 11.2 Two-Fluid Model of Sediment-Laden Flows. 11.3 Mixture Model of Sediment-Laden Flows. 11.4 Applications to Steady Uniform Sediment-Laden Flows. 12. Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 12.1 Classifications of Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 12.2 Rheology of Hyperconcentrated Sediment Slurries. 12.3 Uniform Muddy Flows. 12.4 Uniform Granular Flows. 12.5 Uniform Mixed-Type Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 12.6 Gradually-Varied Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 12.7 Rapidly-Varied Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 12.8 Morphological Features of Hyperconcentrated and Debris Flows. 13. Coastal Sediment Transport. 13.1 Wave Propagation. 13.2 Wave Boundary Layer and Bed Shear Stress. 13.3 Sediment Transport in General Wave Environments. 13.4 Wave-Induced Currents and Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone. 13.5 Wave Motions and Sediment Transport in the Swash Zone. 14. Turbidity Currents. 14.1 General Considerations. 14.2 Uniform Turbidity Currents. 14.3 Gradually-Varied Turbidity Currents. 14.4 Rapidly-Varied Turbidity Currents. 14.5 Turbidity Currents in Reservoirs. 14.6 Turbidity Currents in Channels Open to Sediment-Laden Water. 14.7 Turbidity Currents in Seas and Lakes.  15. Physical Modeling and Similitude. 15.1 General Similitude Theories and Analytical Methods. 15.2 Scale Models of Open Channel Flows. 15.3 Scale Models of Sediment Transport Over Alluvial Beds. 15.4 Scale Models of Other Sediment Transport Processes. 15.5 Comments on Scale Models of Flow and Sediment Transport.



    Dr. Weiming Wu is James K. Edzwald Professor of Water Engineering at Clarkson University, NY, USA. Dr. Wu earned his PhD from Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering, China in 1991. He was Lecturer/Associate Professor at his alma mater in 1991–1995; Research Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe, Germany in 1995–1997; and a faculty member at the National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering of the University of Mississippi in 1997–2013. His research interests include fundamental sediment transport; hydro- and morphodynamics in rivers, estuaries, coastal waters and uplands; surge and wave attenuation by vegetation; interaction between surface and subsurface flows; free surface flow and sediment transport modeling; dam/levee breach and flood modeling; and water quality and aquatic ecosystem/ecotoxicology modeling. He has developed a suite of computational models for flow, sediment transport, pollutant transport, and aquatic ecology in riverine and coastal waters. He authored the book Computational River Dynamics, published through Taylor & Francis, UK in November 2007. In addition, he has published more than 150 articles on journals and conferences. He received a Best Paper Award in 2007 from the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research (WASER). He is a fellow of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and a member of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR). He served as Associate Editor for the International Journal of Sediment Research in 2008–2010 and for the ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering in 2010–2019, and was Chair of the ASCE Computational Hydraulics Committee (2010–2012), the ASCE Task Committee on Dam/Levee Breaching (2009–2012), and the ASCE Sedimentation Committee (2016–2018). He currently serves as Vice President for WASER.