1st Edition

Seismic Retrofitting: Learning from Vernacular Architecture

    Local communities have adapted for centuries to challenging surroundings, resulting from unforeseen natural hazards. Vernacular architecture often reveals very intelligent responses attuned to the environment. Therefore, the question that emerged was: how did local populations prepare their dwellings to face frequent earthquakes?

    It was to respond to this gap in knowledge, that the SEISMIC-V research project was instigated, and this interdisciplinary international publication was prepared. The research revealed the existence of a local seismic culture, in terms of reactive or preventive seismic resistant measures, able to survive, if properly maintained, in areas with frequent earthquakes.

    The fundamental contribution and aims of the publication were to enhance:
    -The disciplinary interest in vernacular architecture;
    -Its contribution to risk mitigation in responding to natural hazards;
    -To encourage academic and scientific research collaboration among different disciplines;
    -To contribute to the improvement of vernacular dwellings, which half of the world’s population still inhabits nowadays.

    Fifty international researchers and experts presented case studies from Latin America, the Mediterranean, Eastern and Central Asia and the Himalayas region, with reference to 20 countries, i.e. Algeria, Bolivia, Bhutan, Chile,
    China, Egypt, El Salvador, Greece, Haiti, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru, Romania, Taiwan, Turkey and a closer detailed analysis of Portugal. This publication brings together 43 contributions, with new
    perspectives on seismic retrofitting techniques and relevant data, addressing vernacular architecture; an amazing source of knowledge, and to this day, home to 4 billion people.

    Part 1: Framework

    Vernacular architecture: A paradigm of the local seismic culture
    F. Ferrigni
    Vernacular architecture?
    G.D. Carlos, M.R. Correia, S. Rocha & P. Frey
    Seismic-resistant building practices resulting from Local Seismic Culture
    J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos & M.R. Correia
    Practices resulting from seismic performance improvement on heritage intervention
    R.F. Paula & V. Cóias
    Criteria and methodology for intervention in vernacular architecture and earthen heritage
    M.R. Correia
    Structural conservation and vernacular construction
    P.B. Lourenço, H. Varum, G. Vasconcelos & H. Rodrigues
    Seismic retrofitting of historic earthen buildings
    C. Cancino & D. Torrealva
    Local building cultures valued to better contribute to housing reconstruction programs
    T. Joffroy & P. Garnier

    Part 2: Local seismic culture around the world

    Local seismic culture in Latin America
    L.F. Guerrero Baca & J. Vargas Neumann
    Local seismic culture in the Mediterranean region
    L. Dipasquale & S. Mecca
    The central and eastern Asian local seismic culture: Three approaches
    F. Ferrigni
    The earthquake resistant vernacular architecture in the Himalayas
    Randolph Langenbach
    Traditional construction in high seismic zones: A losing battle? The case of the 2015
    Nepal earthquake
    X. Romão, E. Paupério & A. Menon
    Case study: Local seismic culture in vernacular architecture in Algeria
    A. Abdessemed, Y. Terki & D. Benouar
    Case study: Assessment of the seismic resilience of traditional Bhutanese buildings
    T. Ilharco, A.A. Costa, J.M. Guedes, B. Quelhas, V. Lopes, J.L. Vasconcelos & G.S.C. Vasconcelos
    Case study: Vernacular seismic culture in Chile
    N. Jorquera & H. Pereira
    Case study: Seismic resistant typologies technology in vernacular architecture in
    Sichuan Province, China
    J. Yao
    Case study: Seismic retrofitting in ancient Egyptian adobe architecture
    S. Lamei
    Case study: Seismic resistant constructive systems in El Salvador
    F. Gomes, M.R. Correia & R.D. Nuñez
    Case study: Seismic retrofitting of Japanese traditional wooden structures
    N. Takiyama
    Case study: Seismic retrofitting constructive typology of vernacular Moroccan architecture (Fez)
    A. Abdessemed-Foufa
    Case study: Local seismic culture in Romanian vernacular architecture
    M. Ha˘rma˘nescu & E.S. Georgescu
    Case study: Local seismic culture in Taiwan vernacular architecture
    Y.R. Chen

    Part 3: Local seismic culture in Portugal

    Recognising local seismic culture in Portugal, the SEISMIC-V research
    M.R. Correia & G.D. Carlos
    Seismic hazard analysis: An overview
    J.F.B.D. Fonseca & S.P. Vilanova
    A brief paleoseismology literature review: Contribution for the local seismic culture study in Portugal
    M.R. Correia, M. Worth & S. Vilanova
    Portuguese historical seismicity
    Seismic behaviour of vernacular architecture
    H.Varum, H. Rodrigues, P.B. Lourenço & G. Vasconcelos
    The design of 1758’s master plan and the construction of Lisbon ‘downtown’: A humanistic concept?
    V. Lopes dos Santos
    Timber frames as an earthquake resisting system in Portugal
    E.Poletti, G. Vasconcelos & P.B. Lourenço

    Part 4: Portuguese local seismic culture: Assessment by regions

    Lisbon: Downtown’s reconstruction after the 1755 earthquake
    G.D. Carlos, M.R. Correia, G. Sousa, A. Lima, F. Gomes & V. Lopes dos Santos
    The 1909 earthquake impact in the Tagus Lezíria region
    E. Gomes, A. Lima, G.D. Carlos & M.R. Correia
    Costal Alentejo region: Identification of local seismic culture
    F. Gomes, A. Lima, G.D. Carlos & M.R. Correia
    Seismic-resistant elements in the Historical Centre of Évora
    G.D. Carlos, M.R. Correia, G. Sousa, A. Lima & F. Gomes
    Seismic-resistant features in Lower Alentejo’s vernacular architecture
    A. Lima, F. Gomes, G.D. Carlos, D. Viana & M.R. Correia
    Seismic vulnerability of the Algarve coastal region
    G.D. Carlos, M.R. Correia, G. Sousa, A. Lima, F. Gomes, L. Félix & A. Feio
    The high and intense seismic activity in the Azores
    F. Gomes, M.R. Correia, G.D. Carlos & A. Lima

    Part 5: Typology performance study

    Seismic behaviour assessment of vernacular isolated buildings
    J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, P.B. Lourenço, H. Rodrigues & H. Varum
    Seismic behaviour analysis and retrofitting of a row building
    R.S. Barros, A. Costa, H. Varum, H. Rodrigues, P.B. Lourenço & G. Vasconcelos
    Seismic vulnerability of vernacular buildings in urban centres—the case of Vila Real de Santo António
    J. Ortega, G. Vasconcelos, P.B. Lourenço, H. Rodrigues & H. Varum

    Part 6: Conclusions of the research

    Systematisation of seismic mitigation planning at urban scale
    D.L. Viana, A. Lima, G.D. Carlos, F. Gomes, M.R. Correia, P.B. Lourenço & H. Varum
    Systematisation of seismic retrofitting in vernacular architecture
    A. Lima, M.R. Correia, F. Gomes, G.D. Carlos, D. Viana, P.B. Lourenço & H. Varum
    Common damages and recommendations for the seismic retrofitting of vernacular dwellings
    M.R. Correia, H. Varum & P.B. Lourenço


    Mariana R. Correia (Edited by) ,  Paulo B. Lourenco (University of Minho, Portugal) (Edited by) ,  Humberto Varum (Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal) (Edited by)