551 Pages 171 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Developed from the authors’ classroom-tested material, Semiconductor Laser Theory takes a semiclassical approach to teaching the principles, structure, and applications of semiconductor lasers. Designed for graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, and materials science, the text covers many recent developments, including diode lasers using quantum wells, quantum dots, quantum cascade lasers, nitride lasers, group IV lasers, and transistor lasers.

    The first half of the book presents basic concepts, such as the semiconductor physics needed to understand the operation of lasers, p-n junction theory, alloys, heterostructures, quantum nanostructures, k.p theory, waveguides, resonators, filters, and optical processes. The remainder of the book describes various lasers, including double heterostructure, quantum wire, quantum dot, quantum cascade, vertical-cavity surface-emitting, single-mode and tunable, nitride, group IV, and transistor lasers.

    This textbook equips students to understand the latest progress in the research and development of semiconductor lasers, from research into the benefits of quantum wire and quantum dot lasers to the application of semiconductor lasers in fiber-optic communications. Each chapter incorporates reading lists and references for further study, numerous examples to illustrate the theory, and problems for hands-on exploration.

    Introduction to Semiconductor Lasers
    Brief History
    Principle of Lasers
    Semiconductor Laser
    Materials for Semiconductor Lasers
    Special Features

    Basic Theory
    Band Structure
    E–k Diagram and Effective Mass
    Density of States
    Carrier Concentration
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor
    Transport of Charge Carriers
    Excess Carriers
    Diffusion and Recombination: The Continuity Equation
    Basic p-n Junction Theory
    I-V and Capacitance–Voltage Characteristics of p-n Junction

    Heterojunctions and Quantum Structures
    Quantum Structures
    Quantum Wells
    Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots
    Strained Layers

    Band Structures
    Band Theory: Bloch Functions
    The k.p Perturbation Theory Neglecting Spin
    Spin–Orbit Interaction
    Strain-Induced Band Structure
    Quantum Wells

    Waveguides and Resonators
    Ray Optic Theory
    Reflection Coefficients
    Modes of a Planar Waveguide
    Wave Theory of Light Guides
    3-D Optical Waveguides

    Optical Processes
    Optical Constants
    Absorption Processes in Semiconductors
    Fundamental Absorption in Direct Gap
    Intervalence Band Absorption (IVBA)
    Free-Carrier Absorption
    Recombination and Luminescence
    Nonradiative Recombination
    Carrier Effect on Absorption and Refractive Index

    Models for DH Lasers
    Gain in DH Lasers
    Threshold Current
    Effect of Electric Field in Cladding on Leakage Current
    Gain Saturation
    Rate Equation Model
    Rate Equations: Solution of Time-Dependent Problems
    Modulation Response
    Temperature Dependence of Threshold Current

    Quantum Well Lasers
    Interband Transitions
    Model Gain Calculation: Analytical Model
    Recombination in QWs
    Loss Processes in QW Lasers
    MQW Laser
    Modulation Response of QW Lasers
    Strained QW Lasers
    Type II Quantum Well Lasers
    Tunnel-Injection QW Laser

    Quantum Dots
    QD Growth Mechanisms and Structures
    Introductory Model for QD Lasers
    Deviation from Simple Theory: Effect of Broadening
    Subband Structures for Pyramidal QDs
    Refined Theory for Gain and Threshold
    Modulation Bandwidth: Rate Equation Analysis
    Tunnel-Injection QD Lasers

    Quantum Cascade Lasers
    A Brief History
    Basic Principle
    Improved Design of Structures
    Nonradiative Inter- and Intrasubband Transitions
    Some Design Issues
    Frequency Response
    Terahertz QCL
    QD QCL

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser
    Structures and Basic Properties
    Elementary Theory of VCSEL
    Requirements for Components
    Characteristics of VCSELs
    Modulation Bandwidth
    Temperature Dependence
    Tunnel Junction
    Microcavity Effects and Nanolasers

    Single-Mode and Tunable Lasers
    Need for Single-Mode Laser
    Limitation of FP Laser
    Distributed Feedback
    DBR Laser
    DFB Laser
    Tunable Lasers
    Characteristics of Tunable Lasers
    Methods and Structures for Continuous and Discontinuous Tuning
    Tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Nitride Lasers
    Polar Materials and Polarization Charge
    Quantum-Confined Stark Effect
    Early Work and Challenges
    Some Useful Properties of Nitrides
    First Laser Diode
    Violet c-Plane Laser
    Blue and Green Lasers
    Nonpolar and Semipolar Growth Planes

    Group IV Lasers
    Need for Si (Group IV) Lasers
    Problems Related to Group IV Semiconductors: Indirect Gap
    Recent Challenges
    Use of Heterostructure for Direct Bandgap Type I Structure
    Ge Laser at 1550 nm
    Mid-Infrared Laser Based on GeSn
    Incorporation of C

    Transistor Lasers
    Structure and Basic Working Principle
    Principle of Operation: Model Description
    Gain Compression
    Frequency Response

    Appendix I
    Appendix II

    Problems, a Reading List, and References appear at the end of each chapter.


    Prasanta Kumar Basu retired as a professor from the University of Calcutta in 2011 and is now a UGC Basic Scientific Research Faculty Fellow at the university. Dr. Basu has published roughly 120 articles in peer-reviewed journals. His research interests include low-field and hot electron transport and scattering mechanisms in semiconductors and their nanostructures, semiconductor electronic and photonic devices, and optical communication. He earned a PhD in radio physics and electronics from the University of Calcutta.

    Bratati Mukhopadhyay is an assistant professor in the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics at the University of Calcutta. Dr. Mukhopadhyay is a member of the IEEE and the current secretary of the IEEE Photonics Society, Calcutta Chapter. Her research interests include physics of semiconductor nanostructures, semiconductor devices and modeling, VLSI circuits, and photonics. She earned a PhD in radio physics and electronics from the University of Calcutta.

    Rikmantra Basu is an assistant professor in the Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Delhi. Dr. Basu is a member of the IEEE. His research interests include semiconductor devices, electronic circuits and devices, optoelectronics and optical communication, and nanophotonics. He earned a Ph.D. in nanotechnology from the University of Calcutta.

    "This textbook offers a thorough treatment of basic principles and also manages to capture current trends in semiconductor laser research. … topics are supplemented with problem sets for testing the reader’s understanding, and some references to the literature. The authors’ clear presentation of the material in this volume makes it eminently digestible."
    Optics & Photonics News, December 2015