Semiconductor Laser Theory: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Semiconductor Laser Theory

1st Edition

By Prasanta Kumar Basu, Bratati Mukhopadhyay, Rikmantra Basu

CRC Press

551 pages | 171 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466561915
pub: 2015-06-23
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Developed from the authors’ classroom-tested material, Semiconductor Laser Theory takes a semiclassical approach to teaching the principles, structure, and applications of semiconductor lasers. Designed for graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, and materials science, the text covers many recent developments, including diode lasers using quantum wells, quantum dots, quantum cascade lasers, nitride lasers, group IV lasers, and transistor lasers.

The first half of the book presents basic concepts, such as the semiconductor physics needed to understand the operation of lasers, p-n junction theory, alloys, heterostructures, quantum nanostructures, k.p theory, waveguides, resonators, filters, and optical processes. The remainder of the book describes various lasers, including double heterostructure, quantum wire, quantum dot, quantum cascade, vertical-cavity surface-emitting, single-mode and tunable, nitride, group IV, and transistor lasers.

This textbook equips students to understand the latest progress in the research and development of semiconductor lasers, from research into the benefits of quantum wire and quantum dot lasers to the application of semiconductor lasers in fiber-optic communications. Each chapter incorporates reading lists and references for further study, numerous examples to illustrate the theory, and problems for hands-on exploration.


"This textbook offers a thorough treatment of basic principles and also manages to capture current trends in semiconductor laser research. … topics are supplemented with problem sets for testing the reader’s understanding, and some references to the literature. The authors’ clear presentation of the material in this volume makes it eminently digestible."

Optics & Photonics News, December 2015

Table of Contents

Introduction to Semiconductor Lasers

Brief History

Principle of Lasers

Semiconductor Laser

Materials for Semiconductor Lasers

Special Features


Basic Theory


Band Structure

E–k Diagram and Effective Mass

Density of States

Carrier Concentration

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor

Transport of Charge Carriers

Excess Carriers

Diffusion and Recombination: The Continuity Equation

Basic p-n Junction Theory

I-V and Capacitance–Voltage Characteristics of p-n Junction

Heterojunctions and Quantum Structures




Quantum Structures

Quantum Wells

Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots

Strained Layers

Band Structures


Band Theory: Bloch Functions

The k.p Perturbation Theory Neglecting Spin

Spin–Orbit Interaction

Strain-Induced Band Structure

Quantum Wells

Waveguides and Resonators


Ray Optic Theory

Reflection Coefficients

Modes of a Planar Waveguide

Wave Theory of Light Guides

3-D Optical Waveguides


Optical Processes


Optical Constants

Absorption Processes in Semiconductors

Fundamental Absorption in Direct Gap

Intervalence Band Absorption (IVBA)

Free-Carrier Absorption

Recombination and Luminescence

Nonradiative Recombination

Carrier Effect on Absorption and Refractive Index


Models for DH Lasers


Gain in DH Lasers

Threshold Current

Effect of Electric Field in Cladding on Leakage Current

Gain Saturation

Rate Equation Model

Rate Equations: Solution of Time-Dependent Problems

Modulation Response

Temperature Dependence of Threshold Current

Quantum Well Lasers



Interband Transitions

Model Gain Calculation: Analytical Model

Recombination in QWs

Loss Processes in QW Lasers

MQW Laser

Modulation Response of QW Lasers

Strained QW Lasers

Type II Quantum Well Lasers

Tunnel-Injection QW Laser

Quantum Dots


QD Growth Mechanisms and Structures

Introductory Model for QD Lasers

Deviation from Simple Theory: Effect of Broadening

Subband Structures for Pyramidal QDs

Refined Theory for Gain and Threshold

Modulation Bandwidth: Rate Equation Analysis

Tunnel-Injection QD Lasers

Quantum Cascade Lasers


A Brief History

Basic Principle

Improved Design of Structures

Nonradiative Inter- and Intrasubband Transitions

Some Design Issues

Frequency Response

Terahertz QCL


Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser


Structures and Basic Properties

Elementary Theory of VCSEL

Requirements for Components

Characteristics of VCSELs

Modulation Bandwidth

Temperature Dependence

Tunnel Junction


Microcavity Effects and Nanolasers

Single-Mode and Tunable Lasers


Need for Single-Mode Laser

Limitation of FP Laser

Distributed Feedback

DBR Laser

DFB Laser

Tunable Lasers

Characteristics of Tunable Lasers

Methods and Structures for Continuous and Discontinuous Tuning

Tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

Nitride Lasers


Polar Materials and Polarization Charge

Quantum-Confined Stark Effect

Early Work and Challenges

Some Useful Properties of Nitrides

First Laser Diode

Violet c-Plane Laser

Blue and Green Lasers

Nonpolar and Semipolar Growth Planes

Group IV Lasers


Need for Si (Group IV) Lasers

Problems Related to Group IV Semiconductors: Indirect Gap

Recent Challenges

Use of Heterostructure for Direct Bandgap Type I Structure

Ge Laser at 1550 nm

Mid-Infrared Laser Based on GeSn

Incorporation of C

Transistor Lasers


Structure and Basic Working Principle

Principle of Operation: Model Description

Gain Compression

Frequency Response

Appendix I

Appendix II

Problems, a Reading List, and References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Authors

Prasanta Kumar Basu retired as a professor from the University of Calcutta in 2011 and is now a UGC Basic Scientific Research Faculty Fellow at the university. Dr. Basu has published roughly 120 articles in peer-reviewed journals. His research interests include low-field and hot electron transport and scattering mechanisms in semiconductors and their nanostructures, semiconductor electronic and photonic devices, and optical communication. He earned a PhD in radio physics and electronics from the University of Calcutta.

Bratati Mukhopadhyay is an assistant professor in the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics at the University of Calcutta. Dr. Mukhopadhyay is a member of the IEEE and the current secretary of the IEEE Photonics Society, Calcutta Chapter. Her research interests include physics of semiconductor nanostructures, semiconductor devices and modeling, VLSI circuits, and photonics. She earned a PhD in radio physics and electronics from the University of Calcutta.

Rikmantra Basu is an assistant professor in the Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Delhi. Dr. Basu is a member of the IEEE. His research interests include semiconductor devices, electronic circuits and devices, optoelectronics and optical communication, and nanophotonics. He earned a Ph.D. in nanotechnology from the University of Calcutta.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics