Materials Interaction and Reliability
In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package.
The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing—package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how the properties of packaging materials interact with each another and explore how to maximize the performance of these materials in regard to package integrity and reliability.
By tying together the disparate elements essential to a semiconductor package, this easy-to-read book shows how all the parts fit and work together to provide durable protection for the integrated circuit chip within as well as a means for the chip to communicate with the outside world.
Table of Contents
History and Background
Wire bonding process flow
Flip-chip process flow comparison
Package Form Factors and Families
Package outline standardization
Leaded package families
Quad lead package family
Substrate-based package families
Chip scale packages
Stacked-die package family
Package-on-package and related variations
Wafer-level chip scale packages
Package cracking or "popcorning"
Surface-mount packages: peripheral leads versus area array
Issues with advanced packaging
Current and future trends
Other Packaging Needs
Tape automated bonding
Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
Image sensor modules
Packaging needs for solar technology
Examples of reliability tests
Limitations of reliability testing
MATERIALS USED IN SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGING
Die attach adhesives
Lead frames, heat spreaders, and heat sinks
Ceramics and Glasses
Types of ceramics used in semiconductor packaging
Types of glasses used in semiconductor packaging
Trends and Challenges
Copper interconnects and low-κ dielectric materials
Dielectric constant requirements at each technology node
Future interconnect and dielectric materials
Future packaging options
Unique characteristics of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging needs
Reliability requirements for LED packages
Appendix A: Analytical Tools
Appendix B: Destructive Tools and Tests
Bibliography appears at the end of each chapter.
Andrea Chen is a technical marketing manager at Siliconware USA, Inc. She previously worked in the Technology Development group at ChipPAC, Inc. and in the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. She has coauthored more than 30 papers and presentations.
Randy Hsiao-Yu Lo is president of Siliconware USA, Inc. He was previously the vice president of R&D at SPIL, leader of the Electronic Packaging Development group at ERSO/ITRI-Taiwan, and senior engineering manager of the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. He has coauthored more than 20 papers and presentations and holds over 40 U.S. patents.
Meticulously written and organized ... this book has everything needed to develop a complete understanding of semiconductor packaging, particularly how materials interact with one another. ... this book is easy to read and, more importantly, easy to understand ... Particularly valuable are the appendices from the chapter describing analytical tools, what they are and how they are used and the chapter on destructive tools and tests. ... whether an experienced engineer involved in electronic packaging or a novice, you need to make sure that this volume is a part of your technical library.
—Dan Beaulieu, D.B. Management Group, in I-Connect007, December 2011
This book provides a complete and systematic discussion of key materials used in electronic packages. Unlike most of its competitors which are composed by several contributors, this book is written by two authors who are well-respected veterans in the electronic package industry. Therefore, consistency and easy to follow for new engineers and students will be the most distinguishing features for this book.
—Kevin K.L. Chen, Qualcomm Atheros, San Jose, California, USA
This book gives a good general overview of materials used in the making of semiconductor packages. The text covers both individual material types and their performance requirements in the end product. Also discussed are the historical background, purpose, key material properties, various material interactions, reliability requirements, and future trends. The book is easy to read and would serve as an excellent introduction to the subject for a student or engineer unfamiliar with the topic. It would also serve as a handy reference guide for a basic understanding of semiconductor packaging materials, as well of semiconductor packaging itself.
—Zemo Yang, Ambarella Corp, Santa Clara, California, USA
Materials technology is enabling the rapid development of new and advanced semiconductor packaging form factors. Knowledge of how material interactions impact package reliability and performance is ever more critical to the semiconductor industry, so both students and engineers need a resource to turn to in understanding material technology issues and trade-offs. This book serves as such a resource and reference guide to the world of semiconductor packaging materials.
—Daniel P. Tracy, SEMI, San Jose, California, USA
A great book for someone who quickly wishes to get up to speed in 1st level of semiconductor packaging.
—Jack Belani, Vice President, Marketing and Sales, Contact Materials Division, Heraeus Materials Technology LLC