1st Edition

Semiconductor Packaging Materials Interaction and Reliability

By Andrea Chen, Randy Hsiao-Yu Lo Copyright 2012
    216 Pages 108 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    216 Pages 108 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package.

    The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing—package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how the properties of packaging materials interact with each another and explore how to maximize the performance of these materials in regard to package integrity and reliability.

    By tying together the disparate elements essential to a semiconductor package, this easy-to-read book shows how all the parts fit and work together to provide durable protection for the integrated circuit chip within as well as a means for the chip to communicate with the outside world.

    History and Background
    Brief history
    Wire bonding process flow
    Flip-chip process flow comparison
    Material interactions

    Package Form Factors and Families
    Package outline standardization
    Leaded package families
    Quad lead package family
    Substrate-based package families
    Chip scale packages
    Stacked-die package family
    Package-on-package and related variations
    Flip-chip packages
    Wafer-level chip scale packages

    Surface-Mount Technology
    Package cracking or "popcorning"
    Surface-mount packages: peripheral leads versus area array
    Issues with advanced packaging
    Current and future trends

    Other Packaging Needs
    Tape automated bonding
    Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
    Image sensor modules
    Memory cards
    Packaging needs for solar technology

    Reliability Testing
    Examples of reliability tests
    Limitations of reliability testing

    Molding compounds
    Die attach adhesives
    Underfill materials
    Organic substrates

    Lead frames, heat spreaders, and heat sinks
    Bonding wires
    Wafer bumping

    Ceramics and Glasses
    Types of ceramics used in semiconductor packaging
    Types of glasses used in semiconductor packaging

    Trends and Challenges
    Copper interconnects and low-κ dielectric materials
    Dielectric constant requirements at each technology node
    Future interconnect and dielectric materials
    Future packaging options

    Light-Emitting Diodes
    Unique characteristics of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging needs
    Reliability requirements for LED packages

    Appendix A: Analytical Tools
    Appendix B: Destructive Tools and Tests


    Bibliography appears at the end of each chapter.


    Andrea Chen is a technical marketing manager at Siliconware USA, Inc. She previously worked in the Technology Development group at ChipPAC, Inc. and in the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. She has coauthored more than 30 papers and presentations.

    Randy Hsiao-Yu Lo is president of Siliconware USA, Inc. He was previously the vice president of R&D at SPIL, leader of the Electronic Packaging Development group at ERSO/ITRI-Taiwan, and senior engineering manager of the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. He has coauthored more than 20 papers and presentations and holds over 40 U.S. patents.

    Meticulously written and organized ... this book has everything needed to develop a complete understanding of semiconductor packaging, particularly how materials interact with one another. ... this book is easy to read and, more importantly, easy to understand ... Particularly valuable are the appendices from the chapter describing analytical tools, what they are and how they are used and the chapter on destructive tools and tests. ... whether an experienced engineer involved in electronic packaging or a novice, you need to make sure that this volume is a part of your technical library.
    —Dan Beaulieu, D.B. Management Group, in I-Connect007, December 2011

    This book provides a complete and systematic discussion of key materials used in electronic packages. Unlike most of its competitors which are composed by several contributors, this book is written by two authors who are well-respected veterans in the electronic package industry. Therefore, consistency and easy to follow for new engineers and students will be the most distinguishing features for this book.
    —Kevin K.L. Chen, Qualcomm Atheros, San Jose, California, USA

    This book gives a good general overview of materials used in the making of semiconductor packages. The text covers both individual material types and their performance requirements in the end product. Also discussed are the historical background, purpose, key material properties, various material interactions, reliability requirements, and future trends. The book is easy to read and would serve as an excellent introduction to the subject for a student or engineer unfamiliar with the topic. It would also serve as a handy reference guide for a basic understanding of semiconductor packaging materials, as well of semiconductor packaging itself.
    —Zemo Yang, Ambarella Corp, Santa Clara, California, USA

    Materials technology is enabling the rapid development of new and advanced semiconductor packaging form factors. Knowledge of how material interactions impact package reliability and performance is ever more critical to the semiconductor industry, so both students and engineers need a resource to turn to in understanding material technology issues and trade-offs. This book serves as such a resource and reference guide to the world of semiconductor packaging materials.
    —Daniel P. Tracy, SEMI, San Jose, California, USA

    A great book for someone who quickly wishes to get up to speed in 1st level of semiconductor packaging.
    —Jack Belani, Vice President, Marketing and Sales, Contact Materials Division, Heraeus Materials Technology LLC