Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors  book cover
1st Edition

Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors

ISBN 9781138033856
Published November 20, 2017 by CRC Press
624 Pages 16 Color & 343 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential.

Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detectors, an important supplement to the knowledge now required to achieve full understanding of the workings of SDDs, CCDs, and Compound Semiconductor Detectors. The book provides an up-to-date review of the principles, practical applications, and state of the art of semiconductor x-ray detectors. It describes many of the facets of x-ray detection and measurement using semiconductors, from manufacture to implementation. The initial chapters present a self-contained summary of relevant background physics, materials science, and engineering aspects. Later chapters compare and contrast the assembly and physical properties of systems and materials currently employed, enabling readers to fully understand the materials and scope for applications.

Table of Contents

The Detector and Charge Sensitive Preamplifier: A System Overview
The Transducer
Why Semiconductors?
Fermi-Dirac Statistics
Doping of Semiconductors
The p-n Junction Barrier
Charge Generation by Radiation
Pulse Height Analysis
X-Ray Spectroscopy
Leakage Current
Typical Noise Values
Detector Response Function F(E)
Categorization of Semiconductor Detectors
The Lithium Drifted Silicon Detector (Si(Li))
The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD)

Detector Response Function
The Hypermet Function
Monte-Carlo Calculations
Physical Processes and the Analytical Approach
Peak Broadening - The Fano Factor
Charge Collection Efficiency Function
Generation of Spectral Response Function
Charge-Loss Mechanisms
Charge Gains

Detector Artifacts
Field Distortion
The Spur
Ghost Peaks
Compton Scatter
Absorption Edges
Sum Peaks
Electron Contamination

Parameters Influencing ICC
Diffused Junction Contacts
Ion-Implanted Contacts
Surface Barrier Contacts
Low Injection Contacts
Edge Termination of Contacts
Radiation Damage

Si(Li) X-Ray Detectors
Manufacture of Si(Li) Detectors
The Legacy of Contouring
Losing the Process

HPSi and HPGe X-Ray Detectors
HPSi X-Ray Detectors
HPGe X-Ray Detectors

X-Ray Detectors Based on Silicon Lithography and Planar Technology
Silicon p-i-n Diodes
Avalanche Photo-diodes (APDs)
Pixelated X-Ray Detectors (PXDs)

CCD-Based X-Ray detectors
Techniques of Scientific CCDs
The Performance of MOS-CCD X-Ray Detectors
The pn-CCD
CCDs Summary

Silicon Drift Detectors
Concentric Ring SDD X-Ray Detectors
Droplet SDD X-Ray Detectors
SDD Performance
SDD Manufacture
SDD Summary

Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors
The Candidates
General Comments on WBGS
The Present Status of the WBGS X-Ray Detectors

The History of Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors
The Beginnings
The Development of Materials during World War II
1940-1960: Crystal Counters
1940s: The Role of National Labs, Bell Telephone Labs, and other Corporations
The Story of Silicon and Germanium
Other Materials
1960-66: Progress in Detector Manufacture and Spectroscopy
Surface States and Nature’s Gift of SiO2
Processing and Passivation
1960s: The Evolution of Detector Geometries
1960s: Lithium Compensation
1960-1966: Amplifiers
1966-71: Pulsed Optical Restore
Applications on the Horizon
The Companies
1970s and 1980s: Evolution in the Commercial Environment
1970s and 1980s: Low Energy EDXMA
1987: The Kevex Quantum Window: Convenience verses Performance
High Purity Germanium and Silicon
1990s: HPGe X-Ray Detectors
1990s: Bespoke FETs
Convenience verses Performance: A New Approach
SDD: The Influence of Nuclear Physics Again
SDDs as X-Ray Detectors
The SDD EDXRS Companies
The Future

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Author of over 20 publications and the "conditioner" patent for Si(Li) X-Ray Detectors, B. G. Lowe holds a Ph.D from Liverpool University, UK. He has served as commonwealth education officer for University of Columbo, Sri Lanka; lecturer for University of Science-Malaysia, Penang, and North East Wales Institute of Higher Education, UK; chief physicist for Link Systems Ltd, London, UK; physics director, head of development, and senior scientist for Oxford Instruments, London, UK; and senior scientist for e2V Scientific, High Wycombe, UK. He also worked on the UK government-sponsored IMPACT project and CdZnTe detectors at Leicester University, UK.

Author of over 15 publications and two patents, R. A. Sareen holds a Ph.D from Manchester University, UK. He has served as research scientist for Ortec, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA; founder of Nuclan Ltd, London, UK; technical, managing, main board, and executive director for Link Systems Ltd, London, UK (now Oxford Instruments) and UEI London, UK; researcher at Manchester University; and shareholder in Link Systems Ltd, Gresham Power Electronics and Gresham Scientific Instruments Ltd, Salisbury, UK, and Camscan, Cambridge, UK. A Royal Microscopical Society and Institute of Physics fellow, he has liaised with several UK government departments, including security services, and participated in nuclear strategy and homeland security committees.