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Sensors for Safety and Process Control in Hydrogen Technologies





ISBN 9781138894341
Published February 12, 2018 by CRC Press
387 Pages 123 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Understand, Select, and Design Sensors for Hydrogen-Based Applications

The use of hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources is expected to become an essential component of a low-carbon, environmentally friendly energy supply, spurring the worldwide development of hydrogen technologies. Sensors for Safety and Process Control in Hydrogen Technologies provides practical, expert-driven information on modern sensors for hydrogen and other gases as well as physical parameters essential for safety and process control in hydrogen technologies. It illustrates how sensing technologies can ensure the safe and efficient implementation of the emerging global hydrogen market.

The book explains the various facets of sensor technologies, including practical aspects relevant in hydrogen technologies. It presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical and chemical principles), design, and implementations of sensors in hydrogen technologies. The authors also offer guidance on the development of new sensors based on the analysis of the capabilities and limitations of existing sensors with respect to current performance requirements.

Suitable for both technical and non-technical personnel, the book provides a balance between detailed descriptions and simple explanations. It gives invaluable insight into the role sensors play as key enabling devices for both control and safety in established and emerging hydrogen technologies.

Table of Contents

Hydrogen Properties and Technologies of Its Production and Use
PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF HYDROGEN
SAFE USE OF HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN AS AN INDUSTRIAL MASS PRODUCT
EMERGING HYDROGEN MARKETS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES

Introduction to Sensor Technology
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
SENSOR CLASSIFICATION
SENSOR RESPONSE
SENSOR PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREPARATION OF SENSORS
SENSOR DATA ACQUISITION AND EVALUATION

Hydrogen Sensors
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROGEN SENSORS
CATALYTIC HYDROGEN SENSORS
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY HYDROGEN SENSORS
ELECTROCHEMICAL HYDROGEN SENSORS
CONDUCTOMETRIC HYDROGEN SENSORS
FIELD EFFECT BASED HYDROGEN SENSORS
ELECTROMECHANICAL HYDROGEN SENSORS
OPTICAL HYDROGEN SENSORS
SONIC HYDROGEN DETECTORS
SELECTING A HYDROGEN SENSOR
FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN SENSORS
SUMMARY

Sensors for Other Gases
OXYGEN SENSING TECHNOLOGIES
SENSORS FOR GASEOUS TRACE COMPONENTS
HUMIDITY SENSING TECHNOLOGIES

Sensors for Temperature, Pressure, Gas Flow and Fire Detection
TEMPERATURE SENSORS
PRESSURE SENSORS
FLOW SENSORS
FIRE AND SMOKE DETECTION

Sensor Deployment
REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS ON HYDROGEN SENSOR USE
SENSOR TESTING, CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION
REFERENCE METHODS FOR GAS ANALYSIS
SELECTION AND INSTALLATION OF GAS SENSORS

Sensor Applications
OVERVIEW
SENSORS USED IN HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
SENSORS FOR HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE
SENSORS FOR FUEL CELLS AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
SENSORS FOR HYDROGEN IN CHEMICAL AND TECHNICAL PROCESSES
SENSORS FOR INDICATION OF TECHNICAL FAULTS
SUMMARY

Practical Aspects of Gas Sensing
STANDARD CONDITIONS FOR TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPOSITION OF GAS MIXTURES
CONVERSION OF QUANTITIES FOR THE CONTENT OF A GAS IN A GAS MIXTURE
PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN
SENSOR PARAMETERS AND DEFINITIONS

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Author(s)

Biography

Thomas Hübert is head of the laboratory and working group on chemical sensor technology and sol-gel chemistry at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Berlin, Germany. Dr. Hübert participates in national and international standardization activities, including the ISO working group for hydrogen detection, and is the author/coauthor of more than 130 scientific publications. His research interests include the development, testing, calibration, and certification of gas and humidity sensors especially for automotive applications.

Lois Boon-Brett led the hydrogen safety sensor performance testing task at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre-Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET) in Petten, The Netherlands. In this context, Dr. Boon-Brett was a member of the ISO and IEC sensor working groups. Her research interests include hydrogen safety sensor performance testing and technology validation. She currently leads the electric vehicle battery-testing group at the JRC-IET.

William Buttner is a senior scientist in the Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, where he manages the Hydrogen Sensor Laboratory. He is active on a variety of standards development organizations that pertain to the safe use of hydrogen, including ISO, ASTM, SAE, and UL. Dr. Buttner has written more than 100 publications on chemical sensors and sensor-based methods for on-site chemical analyses. His research interests include chemical and physical sensor technology, field analytical chemistry, and electrochemical processes.

Reviews

"This book is written by a group of internationally leading professionals in the field from Europe and the United States with contributions by other renowned experts. It covers the state of the art and addresses practically all aspects of sensors for safety and process control in hydrogen technologies. The book is the first comprehensive source of scientific and practical information on the fundamentals and applications of hydrogen sensors in emerging hydrogen and fuel cell systems and infrastructure. It will be useful to all stakeholders, including but not limited to specialists from the hydrogen industry, teachers and students in academia, technology and safety system developers, and project managers. If you are interested in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, I highly recommend this book for your personal and institutional libraries."
—Vladimir Molkov, Professor and Director of Hydrogen Safety Engineering and Research Centre (HySAFER), Ulster University